Evolutionary Bio Test 3 Week 6
Evolutionary Bio Test 3 Week 6 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adam Rodenberg on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Sears in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Evolutionary Bio Test 3 Week 6 This set of notes includes everything Dr. Sears covered in class plus all of the vocabulary and major notes from the textbook from this week. 4/12 Species concepts morphospecies, biological species, phylogenetic species Process of speciation begins when gene flow is disrupted and populations become genetically isolated 2 step results in divergence in traits such as mating system or habitat use final step produces reproductive isolation Physical isolation as a barrier to gene flow smaller population can be cut off from a larger population when something happens to separate them Genetic isolation thru dispersal and colonization Hawaiian Islands example insects on each island have noticeable differences in several traits Thru vicariance Polyploidy and other chromosome changes may reduce gene flow changes in chromosome numbers isolate populations genetically Temporal isolation in northern japan, in the winter, the moths get separated into isolated population and evolved to live in their respective locations. Southern Japanese moths are not isolated in winter Common garden experiment grew coastal plants in inland environments and vice versa Environmental factors and mating preferences can act together cichlid example depending on the island and the water clarity associated with it, a range of intermediate phenotypes exist in body color Speciation by sensory drive 1 A higher frequency of redshifted alleles of the LWS opsin gene and predominantly redcolored males will be found in the species inhabiting deeper water. 2 Female preference for male color will also be associated with LWS alleles, such that females with redshifted alleles choose red males as mates. 3 The strongest associations among water depth, LWS allele frequency, male color, and female preference will occur at sites with greater water clarity, where fish are spread out across a wider range of depths and there is greater difference between the light environments that the two species experience. Formation of new species by hybridization What drives diversification? Anoles lizard example the rate at which new species are added declines over time Ecological controls on species richness in Caribbean lizards Diversifications of toads 4/14 Review session tonight – Long Hall 216 at 6:00 Today is a review day in class Big study guide is on mindmeister website Know Tinbergen’s questions Mobile genetic elements, silenced? Speciation morphospecies, biological species, phylogenetic species Quantitative genetics quantitative trait Definitely will be on there what are the ways you would calculate heritability math involved Resemblance btwn parents Bring calculator to exam def. will have math on it Difference btwn narrow and broad sense heritability broad includes all genetic variation narrow only includes Breeders equation response to selection = heritability (this is super important) R=h^2 * s Cow example tradeoff cows can be bred to produce up to 20 gal of milk a day, but those cows don’t produce milk as long as other cows ,and in total, they produce less over their lifespan compared to a cow that produces slightly less milk per day Possibly they will include studies that weren’t talked about... want us to be able to recognize and think critically in new situations Know biological species concept, hybrids, reproductive isolation, phylogenetic species concept, Only the very simple forms of life have introns, etc. Textbook Vocab Morphospecies a taxonomic species based wholly on morphological differences from related species. Cryptic species populations that are similar in morphology but were strongly divergent in traits like songs, temperature or drought tolerance, habitat use, or courtship displays. Can be living or fossil Reproductive isolation if populations of organisms do not hybridize regularly in nature, or if they fail to produce a fertile offspring when they do, then they are reproductively isolated and considered separate species Evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) a population of organisms that is considered distinct for purposes of conservation. Delineating ESUs is important when considering conservation action st nd Secondary contact in the three stage process of speciation, (the 1 and 2 being isolation and divergence) the final stage occurs when these diverged populations came back into physical contact. This coming back into contact is known as secondary contact Allopatric model physical isolation creates an effective barrier to gene flow geographic isolation can come from two mechanisms, dispersal across a physical barrier followed by colonization of a new habitat, and vicariance, where an existing range is split by a physical barrier Sympatric speciation the process through which a new species evolves from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographical location Assortative mating individuals with certain traits more often choose mates that share those same traits Prezygotic isolation hybrid offspring are never formed; usually b/c mating btwn species does not take place Postzygotic isolation hybrid offspring suffer from inviability, sterility, or reduced fitness Reinforcement hypothesis predicts that when closely related species come into contact and hybridize, a mechanism that reduces the occurrence of hybridization will evolve Genetic isolation gametes from the same species are preferentially selected to produce zygotes Polyploid hybrid speciation Occurs when an infertile hybrid becomes fertile after doubling of the chromosome number Homoploid hybrid speciation when ploidy stays the same following hybridization, there is no chromosomal isolation btwn hybrids and parental species Adaptive radiation when a new habitat is first exploited by a certain group of organisms and many new species form rapidly
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