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Biology 162 Animal Nutrition Notes

by: Jenn Guzman

Biology 162 Animal Nutrition Notes Biology 162

Jenn Guzman
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Here are the lecture notes for Biology 162 covering Dr. Taylor's lecture of Animal Nutrition and an overview of the digestive tract. Apart of week 3 lecture accompanying chapter 44 of the Freeman B...
Intro to Organismal Form and Function
Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter
Class Notes
Bio 162, Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter, Animal Nutrition, Digestive System, Digestive Tract
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Guzman on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organismal Form and Function in Biological Sciences at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 04/14/16
Dr. Taylor Bio 162 Lecture Notes for Monday, April 11, 2016 Animal Nutrition Lecture Animals ingest, digest, and absorb nutrients to survive and thrive. I. Calories (kcal) are a form of energy measurement unit. Different types of essential nutrients listed below maintain distinct energy values. Essential Nutrient Calorie (kcal) Value Mode of Absorption Carbohydrate 4 kcal/gram Must be broken down into their monosaccharides in order to be absorbed and used Protein 4 kcal/gram Must be broken down into animo acid monomers in order to be absorbed and used Alcohol 7 kcal/gram Lipids (fat) 9 kcal/gram triglycerides with a glycerol and 3 fatty acid tail; maintains a high energy content due to C-H bonds; must be broken down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride; however for storage it is processed back into a triglyceride II. The Digestive Tract Orgaan Type of Role in Digestion Key Notes Digestion Mouth Mechanical and begin breaking down Chewing increases primary carbohydrates into smaller surface area of all Chemical polysaccharides via ingested food to be Digestion of salivary amylase digested carbohygrates Esophagus None Connects mouth to the stomach Stomach Mechanical Stops carbohydrate Mechanically breaks digestion of digestion due to the low down everything to food, starts pH value/high acidity increase surface Chemical denaturing the amylase; area, but only digestion of pepsinogen is cleaved by Chemically begins to proteins the HCl in the stomach to digest proteins be turned into its active form pepsin, which digests proteins into peptides 1 Dr. Taylor Bio 162 Lecture Notes for Monday, April 11, 2016 Organ Type of Role in Digestion Key Notes Digestion Small Chemical *Starts and finish lipid *since so much water Intestine processing and digestion: bile and is added to the Absorption pancreatic lips work system, bile (not an together to emulsify and enzyme) is added to digest lipids into smaller emulsify larger droplets, and then into droplet of fatty acids and triglycerides into monoglycerides smaller droplets *Continues carbohydrate digestion: small polysaccharides are broken into disaccharides via pancreatic amylase; lactase and maltase digest disaccharides into monosaccharides that can now be absorbed *Continue protein digestion: peptides are digested into animo acids via pancreatic proteases Large Absorbs water, *cellulose is broken down *Symbiotic bacteria Intestine forms feces, by gut microbes that we receives sugars due symbiotic have a symbiotic to the relationship bacteria in relationship with; we intestine digests receive fatty acids and cellulose vitamin K by simple diffusion into the bloodstream Rectum None Holding vessel for feces Anus None Expels feces III.Accessory Organs in the Digestive System Accessory Organ Function Role in Digestion Salivary Glands antimicrobial properties; Carbohydrate digestion secretes amylase Liver makes bile helps to break up non polar lipid molecules within the water-filled stomach Gall Bladder stores the bile Pancreas makes amylase, lipase, and proteases 2 Dr. Taylor Bio 162 Lecture Notes for Monday, April 11, 2016 IV. Diabetes: blood glucose imbalance within the body; high blood glucose is toxic to neurons and small blood vessels Type I Type II • usually diagnosed • usually developed while young in middle age, • autoimmune disease although it is in which the immune Symptoms of being getting to younger system attacks untreated thirst, populations insulin-producing polyuria, and • cells in the pancreas cells in the body • genetic causes and dehydration stop responding other factors to insulin • Treatment: insulin • Treatment: diet injection and exercise, drugs Blood Glucose Regulation 3


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