CLDP 3362: WEEK of 4-12
CLDP 3362: WEEK of 4-12 CLDP 3362.001
Popular in Cognitive Development
Popular in Department
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLDP 3362.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Meridith Grant in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
Reviews for CLDP 3362: WEEK of 4-12
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/14/16
THEORIES & WRAP-UP Two key questions: 1. What develops? 2. Why? Theories of cognitive development are systems for explaining the data on what develops. PIAGET 1896 – 1980 His dad was a professor in Switzerland Early interest in biology and the mollusk Became more interested in epistemology An overview of Piaget’s theory: o Main question: how does knowledge grow? o Contributions: 1. Founding the field of cognitive development 2. Conceptualizing development as active and constructive (children want to learn; we should let them) 3. Exploring new methods (scientific approach to studying kids) 4. Getting a good “gist” of cog dev processes, especially with older children o Assumptions: Child is motivated to learn, no rewards needed (AKA constructivist theory) Child is like a scientist: knowledge develop from cognitive “schemes” via interaction with the world o Learning Processes: Assimilation Accommodation Equilibration o Methods: Descriptive and experimental Sensorimotor Period: 0 – 2 years Understanding of the world increases dramatically » Knowledge develops via action » Gradual differentiation of self from environment » Gradual growth of intention 1. Modification of reflexes (0 – 1 month) Child understands environment through inborn reflexes. Begin modifying reflexes. 2. Primary circular reactions (1 – 4 mo) Actions more coordinated, combining reflexes. Try to recreate pleasing events exactly 3. Secondary circular reactions (4 – 8 mo) Interested in objects, not just their own body Repeat action to trigger response “Out of sight, out of mind” 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8 – 12 mo) Coordinating multiple actions AKA means-ends behavior Grasping some aspects of object permanence 5. Tertiary circular reactions (12 – 18 mo) Deliberately varying behaviors that produce interesting outcomes 6. Beginnings of representational thought (18 – 24 mo) Start understanding symbols and representations First signs of pretend play and deferred imitation Different Perspectives (Piaget underestimated infants) 1. Piaget said that infants don’t understand object permanence until 8 – 12 months, with full fledged at 18 m.o. » BUT, recent research finds differently o The Object Concept (Assignment 1) Reaching tasks – some aspects by 8 to 12 months Violation of expectation tasks – between 3.5 and 12 months Some 3.5 m babies look longer at impossible event. Most 5 m.o. look longer at impossible event. o Criticisms of violation of expectations: Passive ask Familiarity preference Lingering visual memory trace (i.e., perceptual vs. “thinking”) o Bottom line: Understanding object permanence is gradual, not sudden 2. Piaget said infants don’t understand symbols until 18 to 24 months » BUT, infants can use language before then. (first words around 12 mos) 3. Piaget said infants can’t do deferred imitation until 18 to 24 months » BUT, other researchers have found differently o 9 month old infants can imitate someone’s actions a day later o 14 m.o. imitate based on actors apparent goal (already know what the intent is) Preoperational Period: 2 – 7 years Development of symbolic understanding and language use Engage in pretend play, think about the past BUT suffer from egocentrism and centration » Egocentrism: Children limited in ability to take the perspective of others o Tested with 3-mountain task (understanding we have different visual perspectives) » Centration: focus on one aspect of a problem, neglecting others o Tested with conservation “Do I have more, do you have more, or are they the same?” o Tested with physics: “toy train task” 1. Piaget said children were egocentric through early childhood » BUT, other researchers have found differently i. False belief around 4 or so ii. Drawing rotation… iii. … iv. … 2. Piaget said children didn’t understand conservation » BUT, why else might they fail? o Improving performance on conservation tasks Concrete Operational Period: 7 - 11 years Begin to think logically about world (e.g., pass conservation task with number and liquid) Grasp length, volume, time Can solve multiple classification problems BUT, don’t think abstractly o Difficulty with hypothetical reasoning problems o Difficulty using systematic approaches to solving some problems (e.g., chemistry problems) Haphazard (versus systematic) Stop gathering evidence too soon Different Perspectives 1. Piaget said that acquiring conservation should be universal » BUT, some cross-cultural differences Mexican children making pottery understand it earlier Children in cultures without formal education understand it later » And not all conservation solved at once 2. Piaget said that kids can’t do logical reasoning » BUT, kids this age CAN do it if experts or taught some strategies Formal Operational Period: 12 years and up Understand abstract concepts, logic, hypothetical thinking Different Perspectives 1. Piaget said children shift to this stage all at once » BUT, children and teens (and sometimes adults) are less consistent 2. Piaget said this was the final stage of cognitive development » BUT, some don’t reach this stage at all SOCIOCULTURAL THEORIES & VYGOTSKY 1896 – 1934 Lived in Russia First interested in literature, then medicine, then law Wrote doctoral thesis on “The Psychology of Art” Studied development in social context Died from tuberculosis (at age 40) Piaget vs. Vygotsky Piaget: o Focus: Individual child o Context is important for eliciting thoughts in the child (more involved as the child as an active learner) Vygotsky: o Focus: Child in context o Child’s thinking cannot be separated from context (how they grow up is inherently important for a child) VYGPTSKY 1. Development depends on what is learned from others Internalization of socially shared processes » Intermental level: other people » Intramental level: self Zone of proximal development (area in-between Actual and Potential development levels); amount of extra reasoning they would be able to do with little help » ZPD Example: o Sorting dollhouse furniture o 3 and 5 y.o. helped a puppet move dollhouse furniture into a house; one group got help (their mom), other got scaffolding o Found: performance on the new hard task was better for children who had help from mom throughout the task opposed to children who just got feedback at the end. They can do more extra reasoning when they are helped throughout the process. 2. Developmental milestone reached when children linked cognition and language (language helps refines and strengthens their cognition skills to organize their thoughts, activities, etc.) Starts with egocentric/private speech Reaches inner speech (self-talk you do in your head) » Helps remove themselves from the immediate context to detach themselves to see what’s beyond How important is language for thought? - No thought without language? Linguistic Relatively Hypothesis (“Whorf”) o Object gender study: Native Spanish and German speakers asked to describe items that have opposite genders in the two languages Provide different types of adjectives, suggesting language influence thought BUT Alternative explanations Cultural differences, no language per se Weird questions Limited influence on thought itself (not tested on higher order thoughts) o Object categorization: Yucatec Maya - nouns often refer to material English - nouns sometimes refer to shape Differences in categorizing objects o Evidence against “Whorf”: Languages can be translated Not having a word in a language does not mean a lack of understanding of the concept Example: Hopi Indian language (does not refer to time, (don’t refer to past, present and future) but doesn’t mean they don’t understand the concept) 3. In addition to language, psychological functioning mediated by cultural tools Technical tools (using a hammer, a computer, etc.) Psychological tools – Sign systems A Vygotsky Experiment: o Explored natural memory (perceptual) vs. sign-assisted memory (mediated by symbols, hints) o First task: baseline (of do they know their colors) » “What color is the floor?” o Second task: two forbidden colors o Third task: different forbidden colors WITH cards to “help them win” » Kind of like the game “Taboo” o Conclusions: there is a development in sign-assisted memory (using a tool – the cards in front of them) Helpful for children between 8 and 13 (but not 5 – 6) Not needed for adults, as if they have their own internal “mental” signs Other tools too… o Psychological functioning mediated by cultural tools (e.g., “alphabet song”, abacus (in learning addition and subtraction)); suggesting that those cultural tools ARE really important! 4. Argued for the importance of play Abstract thought (e.g., metarepresentation); using items to represent something else (a banana as a phone, etc.) Self-regulation (there are rules for how play goes and have to guide their own behavior)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'