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VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Notes Part 2

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by: Amanda Kelehan

VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Notes Part 2 VIAR 121

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Art > VIAR 121 > VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Notes Part 2
Amanda Kelehan
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.607

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Part 2
Art History Survey 1
Rebecca Kreisler
Class Notes
VIARS121 EarlyMiddleAges
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Kelehan on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to VIAR 121 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Rebecca Kreisler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey 1 in Art at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 04/14/16
VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages The Viking Era c. 800-1000  Vikings were Scandinavian warriors who inhabited Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and were known throughout Europe for their paganism and destructive raids  Icelandic sagas recorded oral traditions of Scandinavia and present a valuable account of the pre-Christian culture, the Norse Gods, and Viking society  Around 800, the Scandinavians developed sailing ships propelled by oars, which made extensive travel possible; this leads to traces of Islamic, Byzantine, and Near Eastern/Scythian influence on Viking art  Animal headpost, Oseberg, Norway, 800–850 o Headpost from a Norwegian ship burial o Compact form with a monumental quality and elegant stylization o Function is unknown, but likely served some role as a guardian  Axe, from Mammen, Jutland, Denmark, Late Viking, c. 950–975 o Silver and gold inlay indicate high status of owner o Geometric design with natural elements such as foliage and a bird  The Rök stone, Östergötland, Sweden, early 9th century o A more specifically Scandinavian development are rune stones (featuring written inscriptions) and picture stones (featuring images) o Inscriptions include memorials/records of voyages, battles and daily activities o The Rök stone features the 1st known runic inscription of an oral narrative in Scandinavia; a memorial dedicated by a Viking chieftain to his dead son  Warrior Entering Valhalla, Tjangvide, Gotland, Sweden, 8th–9th century o Runic picture stone created as a memorial stone for a Viking warrior o At the top, a warrior rides Odin’s eight-legged horse into Valhalla; above are 2 more warriors, one falling and one dead, denoting battle o A Valkyrie welcomes the warrior into Valhalla by extending a drinking horn  Harald Bluetooth’s rune stone, Jelling, Denmark, c. 965 o In 964, the Danish King Harald Bluetooth converted Denmark to Christianity o This rune stone was raised to commemorate the conversion o Merges Christian imagery with pagan design Carolingian Period  On December 25, 800, the pope crowned Charlemagne (Charles the Great, king of the Franks) Roman Emperor at Saint Peter’s in Rome  “Carolingian” comes from “Carolus,” Latin for Charles  Rule over most of mainland western Europe  Charlemagne created a brief cultural revival of aspects of Ancient Rome, expansion of learning through monasteries, strong revival of Latin language, political organization, unified code of laws, libraries, etc.  Plan of Charlemagne’s palace chapel, Aachen o Palace chapel was a private place of worship for Charlemagne and his imperial court o Similarities to centrally planned Byzantine buildings (octagonal core, 16 outer sides)  Odo of Metz, Charlemagne’s palace chapel, Aachen, 792–805 o Ambulatory surrounds lower level, with a 2nd level gallery and a 3rd level clerestory o Early Byzantine-like plan, but with Classic Roman features (like Corinthian columns and symmetry  Court school of Charlemagne, Christ Blessing (Christ in Majesty), from the Godescalc Gospels, 781–783 o Anglo-Saxon influence in interlace borders o Strong Byzantine influence in main image:  Frontal pose, flat halo with a cross, outlined drapery and facial features, angled feet  Flattened space despite hints at naturalism (oblique throne, shading in neck)  Saint John, from the Coronation Gospels, late 8th century o Greater sense of naturalism seen in background landscape with an architectural niche o Figure seems more grounded and 3-D, with feet planted  Four Evangelists, from a Carolingian Gospel book, palace chapel school, Aachen, early 9th century o Images of the 4 evangelists and their symbols (as described in The Book of Revelation):  John—eagle  Mark—lion  Luke—bull  Matthew—man o Use of desks and stools is an attempt at 3D space o Drapery is flowing and naturalistic, showing more Roman/Classical influence  Christ in Majesty, Vivian Bible frontispiece, c. 845–846 o Roman influence dissipated after Charlemagne’s death o Figures connected by geometric designs rather than a continuous landscape Ottonian Period  Charlemagne’s grandsons were ineffective rulers, and at the end of the 9th century Europe fell pray to invaders (Vikings took over Normandy, Saxons resumed control of Germany)  The Saxon emperor Otto I the Great was crowned by the pope in 962; the Holy Roman Empire under the Ottonian dynasty consisted only of Germany and northern Italy  Artistic influence from Anglo-Saxon, Byzantine, and Roman sources, depending on the individual art workshop  Restored abbey church of Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, c. 1001–1031 o Commissioned by Bernward, bishop of Hildesheim, the tutor of Otto III o Imposing, massive quality o Architectural variety (cylindrical towers, cubic forms, sloped roofs, round arches) while maintaining symmetry  Section and plan of Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim o Entrances located at the side aisles, which is unusual o Combined influenced from both Roman and Early Christian basilicas  Restored interior of Saint Michael’s, looking west, Hildesheim o Relatively simple interior with a flat roof o Tall nave walls with clerestory windows that illuminate the space o Lower level composed of an unusual arcade of single piers alternating with pairs of columns  Bronze doors, Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, completed 1015 o Inspired by wooden doors at Santa Sabina that Bernward saw while traveling in Rome o Emphasis on typology—Old Testament scenes on the left are paired with New Testament scenes on the right  Temptation and Crucifixion from the bronze doors of Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim o Composition, subject matter, and iconography from left to right are closely related: cruciform tree/wooden cross; original sin/salvation, etc. o Based on examples from earlier Roman monuments, but livelier, more expressive and less constrained  Saint Luke, from the Gospel book of Otto III, c. 1000 o Byzantine influence: gold background, black outlines o St. Luke suspended in space in a green mandorla o Symbolic rather than rational relationships between compositional elements


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