Week 11 Notes
Week 11 Notes HY 362
Popular in Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Week 11 De-Stalinization 4/12/16 The Effects of De-Stalinization o Rehabilitation (to some extent) Restricted their scope only to people indicted after 1935 o Foreign repercussions For communists in the West For the Eastern Bloc Poland Hungary o People are going to remember and will fill the vacuum when the Soviet Union eventually collapses and pulls out Burdhzlov article about Stalin Party sees it as a Pandora’s Box In Russia De-Stalinization is met with muted hooliganism across the country Party leaders approve a special commission to combat anti-Soviet sentiments “Democratization” and “Decentralization” o Democratization: Setting term limits Broadening Party membership Reviving “comrade courts” o Decentralization: Transferring enterprises from central to regional control Creating sovnarkhozy that could manage regional economic development All of this leads to increasing resentment from the upper levels of the Central organs of the Party o People in power were pissed at all these reforms Hanging on to Power o July 18, 1957: Khrushchev faces an attempted coup He argues that the Central Committee is the only body capable of dismissing him This results in Khrushchev’s retention of power and complete routing of his opponents Khrushchev riding high o Economic growth is significant in late 1950s o Soviet sciences become world renowned with the launching of Sputnik o Industrial production starts to catch up with the US o The “Virgin Lands Program” leads to significant improvement in agricultural output Kazakhstan untilled land Problems with the Virgin Lands Program US embassy corn scandal, corn doesn’t last o Standard of living Russia faced significant disparities in standard of living Khrushchev devises a new labor policy, decriminalizes absenteeism, establishing a minimum wage Before this, you could be arrested for not showing up to work He invests heavily into social services, housing, and education Housing stock doubled in Khrushchev era Education o 80% of kids at universities are children of elites o 21 Party Congress De-Stalinization is revitalized. Stalin’s body is moved. Reform appears to be in the air Khrushchev asserts more term limits, more democratization Khrushchev’s Fall o Caused by: Major reverses in foreign policy The Sino-Soviet split The Berlin Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis Large amounts of aid to India (won’t condemn the Americans, won’t get on board with Soviet project), Egypt (gave them $80 million and got nothing for it), Afghanistan (oh yes because that’s a great idea), and Indonesia Khrushchev’s vulgar demeanor Shoe pounding fiasco Khrushchev’s cultural policy 1958 campaign to vilify particular artists Economics In industry In agriculture The weakening of administrative control, corruption The raising of prices to cut demands o Novocherkassk, June 1962 Huge, violent worker strike o Khrushchev attacks the Party bureaucracy People just wanted stability 4/14/16 The Long Brezhnev Rule In practice it created a welfare state, but the Party also jealously guarded its power “Trust in Cadres” o Also means The Party leadership’s interests will be catered to Access to cars, schools, stores, travel, and medical care The results? The creation of a loyal managerial class The encouragement of people to comply and accept the status quo (why?) Living Developed Socialism (and understanding Communism’s Collapse) o The rules became clearer regarding what will and will not get you arrested o Wages and salaries increase, food supplies improve, variety of consumer goods grows, new housing o The “Second Economy” takes care of the rest Foreign, illegal, scarce goods, services Like 25% of Russia’s GDP came from the black market o Soviet Society becomes urbanized Wasn’t until mid-1960s o Citizens become better educated Questioning traditional ways of living 1959 <10% of working/peasant class were literate Brezhnev era, 84% literate 30% of labor force classified as white collar o Private property increased City folks could buy land! People could actually buy consumer goods and they would show them off Dildo chapter of Dovlatov o All this creates higher expectations and growing discontent “Everyday Dissidence” o Soviet citizens are generally obedient, yet they did adopt some forms of non-conformity People went along with it and cooperated with KGB and attended Party meetings out of a form of civic duty, not volunteering People generally avoided doing things that were illegal (at least in public) Slivers of nonconformity symbolic of widespread alienation Made life more tolerable, people trying to exercise some form of control over their own existence Attend Party meetings, but would like knit or read the sports section of the newspaper the whole time o Apathy, disinterest, lazy work You pretty much couldn’t get fired since everyone was guaranteed to have a job o Withdrawal from public into private life Jokes Not about rising up and tearing down the communist system, but about disengaging altogether Done trying to construct this silly utopia that has been pushed upon them in Party rhetoric Manifestation of escapism, turn inward to focus on their own lives Youth Culture o Where is Soviet Consciousness among the young people? Dress Levi jeans Wearing Western clothes is rebellious Represents involvement in a larger youth movement Music Bone records Lots of western music banned Graffiti Writing in Latin letters o Sometimes political, and sometimes just a tag For favorite soccer teams Sports Because it has nothing to do with politics Overt Dissidence o Religious circle emerge Fuck you to the State Huge populations of people getting baptized o Private cultural gatherings
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