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Week 11 Notes

by: Victoria Miller

Week 11 Notes HY 362

Victoria Miller

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of De-Statlinization/Khrushchev's fall and the Brezhnev Era
Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Margaret Peacock
Class Notes
history, Russian Revolution, Communism, Cold War, Western Civ, Soviet Union, USSR
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/14/16
Week 11 De-Stalinization 4/12/16  The Effects of De-Stalinization o Rehabilitation (to some extent)  Restricted their scope only to people indicted after 1935 o Foreign repercussions  For communists in the West  For the Eastern Bloc  Poland  Hungary o People are going to remember and will fill the vacuum when the Soviet Union eventually collapses and pulls out  Burdhzlov article about Stalin  Party sees it as a Pandora’s Box  In Russia  De-Stalinization is met with muted hooliganism across the country  Party leaders approve a special commission to combat anti-Soviet sentiments  “Democratization” and “Decentralization” o Democratization:  Setting term limits  Broadening Party membership  Reviving “comrade courts” o Decentralization:  Transferring enterprises from central to regional control  Creating sovnarkhozy that could manage regional economic development  All of this leads to increasing resentment from the upper levels of the Central organs of the Party o People in power were pissed at all these reforms  Hanging on to Power o July 18, 1957: Khrushchev faces an attempted coup  He argues that the Central Committee is the only body capable of dismissing him  This results in Khrushchev’s retention of power and complete routing of his opponents  Khrushchev riding high o Economic growth is significant in late 1950s o Soviet sciences become world renowned with the launching of Sputnik o Industrial production starts to catch up with the US o The “Virgin Lands Program” leads to significant improvement in agricultural output  Kazakhstan untilled land  Problems with the Virgin Lands Program  US embassy corn scandal, corn doesn’t last o Standard of living  Russia faced significant disparities in standard of living  Khrushchev devises a new labor policy, decriminalizes absenteeism, establishing a minimum wage  Before this, you could be arrested for not showing up to work  He invests heavily into social services, housing, and education  Housing stock doubled in Khrushchev era  Education o 80% of kids at universities are children of elites o 21 Party Congress  De-Stalinization is revitalized. Stalin’s body is moved. Reform appears to be in the air  Khrushchev asserts more term limits, more democratization  Khrushchev’s Fall o Caused by:  Major reverses in foreign policy  The Sino-Soviet split  The Berlin Crisis  The Cuban Missile Crisis  Large amounts of aid to India (won’t condemn the Americans, won’t get on board with Soviet project), Egypt (gave them $80 million and got nothing for it), Afghanistan (oh yes because that’s a great idea), and Indonesia  Khrushchev’s vulgar demeanor  Shoe pounding fiasco  Khrushchev’s cultural policy  1958 campaign to vilify particular artists  Economics  In industry  In agriculture  The weakening of administrative control, corruption  The raising of prices to cut demands o Novocherkassk, June 1962  Huge, violent worker strike o Khrushchev attacks the Party bureaucracy  People just wanted stability 4/14/16 The Long Brezhnev Rule  In practice it created a welfare state, but the Party also jealously guarded its power  “Trust in Cadres” o Also means  The Party leadership’s interests will be catered to  Access to cars, schools, stores, travel, and medical care  The results?  The creation of a loyal managerial class  The encouragement of people to comply and accept the status quo (why?)  Living Developed Socialism (and understanding Communism’s Collapse) o The rules became clearer regarding what will and will not get you arrested o Wages and salaries increase, food supplies improve, variety of consumer goods grows, new housing o The “Second Economy” takes care of the rest  Foreign, illegal, scarce goods, services  Like 25% of Russia’s GDP came from the black market o Soviet Society becomes urbanized  Wasn’t until mid-1960s o Citizens become better educated  Questioning traditional ways of living  1959 <10% of working/peasant class were literate  Brezhnev era, 84% literate  30% of labor force classified as white collar o Private property increased  City folks could buy land!  People could actually buy consumer goods and they would show them off  Dildo chapter of Dovlatov o All this creates higher expectations and growing discontent  “Everyday Dissidence” o Soviet citizens are generally obedient, yet they did adopt some forms of non-conformity  People went along with it and cooperated with KGB and attended Party meetings out of a form of civic duty, not volunteering  People generally avoided doing things that were illegal (at least in public)  Slivers of nonconformity symbolic of widespread alienation  Made life more tolerable, people trying to exercise some form of control over their own existence  Attend Party meetings, but would like knit or read the sports section of the newspaper the whole time o Apathy, disinterest, lazy work  You pretty much couldn’t get fired since everyone was guaranteed to have a job o Withdrawal from public into private life  Jokes  Not about rising up and tearing down the communist system, but about disengaging altogether  Done trying to construct this silly utopia that has been pushed upon them in Party rhetoric  Manifestation of escapism, turn inward to focus on their own lives  Youth Culture o Where is Soviet Consciousness among the young people?  Dress  Levi jeans  Wearing Western clothes is rebellious  Represents involvement in a larger youth movement  Music  Bone records  Lots of western music banned  Graffiti  Writing in Latin letters o Sometimes political, and sometimes just a tag  For favorite soccer teams  Sports  Because it has nothing to do with politics  Overt Dissidence o Religious circle emerge  Fuck you to the State  Huge populations of people getting baptized o Private cultural gatherings


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