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Psychology 1410 - Clinical Psychology pt. 2

by: Carley Olejniczak

Psychology 1410 - Clinical Psychology pt. 2 Psy-1410-007

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Psychlogy > Psy-1410-007 > Psychology 1410 Clinical Psychology pt 2
Carley Olejniczak
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the second half Ch. 12 Clinical Psychology from Dr. Marshall's lecture. Some topics include psychological disorders and treatments.
General Psychology
Dr. Seth Marshall
Class Notes
General Psychology 1410 Marshall Chapter 12 Clinical Psychology part 2
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 04/14/16
Ch. 12 Clinical Psychology pt. 2 Diathesis Stress Model  How it explains psychological disorders o Shows the threshold for experiencing a disorder  Weak disposition, can handle high stress  Strong disposition, cannot handle high stress  What is diathesis? o Tendency/Predisposition/Nature Psychological Disorders  “Bio-psycho-social” approach in treating disorders (medical, mental, cultural) Schizophrenia  Symptoms o Psychosis – loss of contact with reality o Hallucinations – false sense of perception; mainly hearing (voices) o Delusions – false beliefs (thinking they are Jesus) o Neologisms – using words that don’t exist o Word salad - a confused or unintelligible mixture of seemingly random words and phrases o Loose associations – the patient’s responses don’t relate to the question asked (not logically connected)  Age of onset o Adolescents or early adult hood  Hypothesized causes o Changing in the brain during puberty o Brain based condition (strong genetic component)  Historical and current treatments o Historical  Trephining – drilling holes in skull to let out bad spirits  Isolation o Current  Antipsychotic medications  Block dopamine  Psychological intervention Anxiety Disorders  Generalized Anxiety Disorder – chronic excessive worry for six months or more o Panic Disorder – recurring, unpredictable episodes of overwhelming anxiety, fear or terror  Symptoms – panic attack (think it’s a heart attack)  Causes  Treatment – demystifying it; proactively using exercises; antianxiety  Examples o Phobias – a persistent, irrational unreasonable fear of some specific object, situation or activity  Counter Conditioning – conditioning an unwanted behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior  Systematic desensitization – systematic desensitization (slowly introduce and make them comfortable) o Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – an anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors you feel compelled to perform.  Obsession – recurring thoughts that cause distress  Compulsion – recurrent action that causes distress o Agoraphobia – an intense fear of being in a situation from which escape is not possible  going out in public, panic attack connection Affective (Mood) Disorders  Bipolar Disorder o Mania o 1% of adults o Tends to run in families – stronger than depression in genes o 2 extremes in mood  Manic, depressive  Manic episodes - A period of:  Excessive euphoria  Inflated self-esteem  Optimism  Hyperactivity  Delusions of grandeur  Hostility o Vincent Van Gough probably was bipolar  Manic episodes tend to spark creativity  Major Depressive Disorder o Based on a spectrum o Feelings of overwhelming sadness that can persist for a long period of time o Symptoms:  Sleeping longer or not at all  Not eating  No physical activity – stops doing the things they used to enjoy  Difficulty thinking  Do not take care of themselves (i.e. personal hygiene)  Do not socialize with others o Treatments depend on where the personal lies on the spectrum  Martin Seligman’s studies of depression o Studied Amish communities against “normal” communities o Amish have 1/5 to 1/10 the risk for unipolar depression compared to modern US culture  Because of their connectivity of their communities  More connected to nature, spends most of their days at physical work, strict sleep schedules, generally healthy lifestyles o Depression is heritable AND environmental Suicide  Talking about it DOES help! o Being opening about talking about this heavy topic lets people know how at risk a person is  Trends o Gender  Males are more likely to succeed in suicide  Males usually use firearms  Females are more likely to attempt suicide  Females usually use drugs o Age  15% of 8 and 10 graders have attempted suicide  White males towards the end of their lifespan are most at risk for suicide (ages 75-85)  Debilitating condition, loss of spouse or loved ones, loss of future vision o Geography  Rural areas more at risk  No access to mental health care  Less social connectivity o Location  Usually at home  More private o Timeframe  Peaks during springtime  Mondays  Warning signs o 90% of individuals leaves clues o Verbal indicators (“you won’t be seeing me again”) o Behavioral clues  Giving away possessions  Withdrawal  Unnecessary risks  Personality changes  Depressive symptoms  Anxiety  Eating behaviors (anorexia, bulimia)  Sleep schedules  Substance abuse  Losing interest in favorite activities Kinship Studies of psychological disorders  Heritability of Psychological Disorders o Bipolar disorder is most heritable, followed by schizophrenia Treatment  Bio-psycho-social approach o Biological – prescribing drugs o Psychological – mental processes o Social – cultural factors  Psychotherapy o Looking at thinking and behavioral skills, making plans for the future  Types of therapy o Behavioral o Cognitive Behavioral o Humanistic o Group o Couples o Family  Research on common factors of change o Client – who they are as a person (40%) o Emphasis is on establishing a healthy, positive relationship (30%) o Hope for the future (15%) o Type/technique (15%) Does Psychotherapy Work?  Untreated person will tend not have as significant of an improvement than a treated person Positive Psychology  What is mental health? o The absence of psychopathology vs. the presence of wellness  Negative psychology o “If there is something wrong, how do we make it better?” o Find what’s wrong, then fix it o Based on psychopathology  Positive psychology o Preventing something wrong from happening o Find what’s right, then encourage it o Not trying to replace negative psychology  Trying to augment it – balance out the scale o The scientific study of strength and virtues that enables individuals and communities to thrive o Trying to make their own version of the DSM – manual of what can go RIGHT with a person o Three Pillars  Positive emotions  Positive individual traits and characteristics  Positive institutions  Example: Behavioral support systems in schools


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