New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Notes April 12-14

by: Madeline Notetaker

Notes April 12-14 Biol 2230-001

Madeline Notetaker
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the lecture notes from class this week covering the urinary system and fluid balance.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. John Cummings
Class Notes
URINARY SYSTEM, fluid balance, anatomy, Physiology, Cummings
25 ?




Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology II

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Notetaker on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


Reviews for Notes April 12-14


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/14/16
Filtration Regulation 4 different mechanisms: 2 are related to kidney itself (intrinsic), 2 involve structures other 1.  Myogenic mechanism); ALL WORK COLLECTIVLY 2.  Tubuloglomerular mechanism 3.  Hormonal mechanism 4.  Neural mechanism Know whole pic! Other Factors to modify kidney activity |  Prostaglandins {  Local signaling molecules {  Function as vasodilators |  Nitric oxide {  A strong vasodilator |  Adenosine {  ATP without the phosphates {  A vasodilator throughout all of body except kidneys, where it is a vasoconstrictor |  Endothelin {  A chemical secreted by lining of blood vessels that causes vasoconstriction Active and passive process; some things require energy some do not. 80% of energy we produce is for kidney. Have to have things pass out of tubule into interstitial space, into vessel. Movement of water is a trans-epithelial process. Reabsorption begins immediately in convoluted tubule. shortcut= paracellular pathway Action by Region Tubular secretion and reabsorption start in convoluted tubule Urine Production Countercurrent Mechanism direction, if vessels run in opposite directionsism. Instead of running in same Countercurrent Multiplier |  Fluids in proximal convoluted tubule osmotically equal to plasma |  Descending limb freely permeable to water and impermeable to solutes {  So filtrate becomes more and more concentrated |  Ascending limb impermeable to water but selectively permeable to solutes {  Ions move out and filtrate becomes more and more dilute |  to urea (not to water)able Renal Gradient The deeper we go into medulla, the more concentrated Countercurrent Exchanger |Vasa recta are freely permeable to water and salt Urine Formation | Concentration of urine dependent on ADH secretion {  Under hormonal control | Low ADH produces a dilute urine | ADH production increases water reabsorption from collecting duct {  Urine becomes more concentrated | ADH acts mostly on distal convoluted tubule {  Opens little channels called aquaporin Urinary Bladder Bladder= Muscular organ that can store fluid When gets too full, stretches, signal to brain telling us we have to pee Empties out urethra; 2 sphincters (internal & external) Trigone= pyramid connecting orifices Micturition | Process of eliminating urine Micturition |  Urine accumulates in urinary bladder |  Stretch receptors activated in wall of organ {  Send signal to brain |  Voiding reflexes under conscious control (once potty trained) {  contracts bladder and relaxes both internal and external sphincters {  External one is under voluntary control so can close it Fluid Balance Bodies are 50-60% fluid, varying based on age (lose fluid as we get older), muscle mass (higher muscle mass, more fluid), gender (males have more fluid), adipose tissue (more fat, less fluid) We have to maintain a homeostatic balance Fluid Compartments | Intracellular { Inside the cell | Cytoplasm { Have to have fluid environment { 2/3 of body fluid Fluid Compartments | Intracellular | Extracellular {  Outside the cell | Either in plasma or intracellular space {  The remaining 1/3 of body fluid **Fluid is DYNAMIC- moves from one place to another. Exchanges between all 3 compartments Composition of fluids | Water { Makes up most of fluid { Universal solvent | Makes things biologically active Composition | Water | Nonelectrolyte s { Organic compounds { Do not dissociate in water |  Ex: Glucose, lipids Composition |  Water |  Nonelectrolytes |  Electrolytes { Substances that do waterciate into ions in |  When dissociates, increase osmotices so gradient { Inorganics |  Ex: salts, acids and bases, proteins Composition of Electrolytes •  The composition of electrolytes in our bodies varies from place to place •  Unequal distribution of ions •  Sodium is higher in extracellular compartments, while potassium is higher inside Fluid Movement |  Regulated by 2 forces: osmotic pressure & hydrostatic pressure { Can see which one is exerting the most control |  Between plasma and interstitial fluid… { Most important force: hydrostatic pressure |  Between interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid { Most important: osmotic pressure… { Because plasma membrane is selectively permeable Water Balance *Generally water in equals water out |Water intake |Water output 1. Ingestion 1.  Vaporization | From foods and drinks | The water vapor in 2. Metabolic water breath as we exhale 2.  Perspiration | Water is the result of metabolic activity as we | Secrete onto surface break down glucose and it evaporates 3.  Elimination | Water lost in feces 4.  Urination | Lose water with urination Regulation Mechanisms- to maintain balance |  Increase in plasma osmolality or decrease in blood volume promotes thirst { Detectedà signal sent to brainà thirstà response is to drink |  Decrease in extracellular fluid osmolality decreases ADH production { More water has move out of tubule (making concentrated urine), so decreasing ADH means don’t absorb as much water |  Large decreases in blood pressure increase ADH production { Low BP, so we need more water in the blood, which means we need to reabsorb more in kidneys. ADH opens aquaporins Electrolyte Balance |Electrolyte intake |Electrolyte output {Ingestion {  erspiration |Dietary electrolytes {Elimination {Metabolic {Urination production {Vomiting is an |Breaking down extreme case nucleic acids Sodium •  The important electrolyte •  Highest concentration in extracellular compartment- creates osmotic gradient that water follows •  Plays a role in blood volume/pressure regulation •  There are no receptors for the detection of sodium in body! •  Instead we monitor BP •  90% of sodium gets reabsorbed back into blood naturally •  Remaining 9% varies based on hormones Sodium Regulation |  Aldosterone {  The most important mechanism of sodium regulation!! {  Synthesis stimulated by renin-angiotensin mechanism (which is regulated by JG cells) {  If BP is low renin is secreted, causes inc in aldosterone production, stimulates reabsorption of sodium, inc water reabsorption, raises BP {  Can be fine-tuned by ADH |  Cardiovascular baroreceptors {  Detect pressure {  Systemic inc in BP, detected by baroreceptors, dec sympathetic stimulation of kidneys, afferent arteriole dilates, inc filtration rate, more sodium moved out of blood, and more water {  Do not change reabsorption, only filtration! {  Self-regulating pathway |  Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) {  Produced by heart when heart is stretched by high BP {  ANP is a vasodilator, so filtration increases, so increase urine output {  Also suppresses ADH and renin which suppresses aldosterone which suppresses reabsorption Sodium Regulation continued |  Estrogen { Promotes sodium reabsorption |  Progesterone { Opposite effect of estrogen { Suppresses sodium reabsorption |  Glucocorticoids { Produced in adrenal cortex { Stress increases production of glucocorticoids { Promote sodium reabsorption, so a side effect of stress is high BP Acid-Base Balance pH of blood is between 7.34-7.4 pH of intracellular fluids is about 7 pH in cells are more acidic than plasma Most of things we take into body are on acidic side Sources of H + 1. Dietary 2. Metabolic Abnormalities |Acidosis | Alkalosis {blood pH becomes acidic { Increase in blood pH {2 forms: { 2 forms: | Respiratory |Respiratory { If CO2 accumulates in {Get rid of more CO2 blood |Metabolic | Metabolic {Accumulation of any { Accumulation of any other base other acid *RATE OF BREATHING CAN AFFECT BLOOD PH Regulation | Chemical buffer systems {Compounds that will act as proton donors or acceptors or temporarily remove things from solution Regulation |  Chemical buffer systems |  Physiological buffer systems {  Eliminate excess acid {  Slower to act than chemical ones, but more efficient {  Function via respiratory exchange | Takes care of CO2 Regulation | Chemical buffer systems | Physiological buffer systems | Renal mechanisms { Permanently eliminate all acids other than CO2 Chemical Buffer Systems | Bicarbonate { Accepts or donates protons { Extracellular Chemical Buffer Systems | Bicarbonate | Phosphate { Donates or accepts protons inside of cells Chemical Buffer Systems |  Bicarbonate |  Phosphate |  Protein {  Better than the other 2 {  Proteins are Amphoteric molecules |  Can function as baseer an acid or |  Ex: hemoglobin Physiological Buffer Systems | Respiratory mechanisms { Rate of breathing { Body responds to changes in blood chemistry |  If Blood pH goes goes downhing rate |  goes down,H breathing rate goes up Renal Mechanisms | Reabsorbing bicarbonate {Comes out as filtrate, into tubule, can be retained Renal Mechanisms | Reabsorbing bicarbonate | Bicarbonate systhesis {Kidneys can actually make it Renal Mechanisms | Reabsorbing bicarbonate | Bicarbonate systhesis | Bicarbonate excretion { If we have too much bicarbonate in blood


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.