Communications Face-Negotiation Theory: Chapter 32
Communications Face-Negotiation Theory: Chapter 32 COMM 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AmberNicole on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Important Terms Important Concepts Important People Important Stats Chapter 32: Face-Negotiation Theory Face-Negotiation Theory Thing-Toomey assumes that people of every culture are always negotiating face o Face Projected image of one’s self in a relational situation o Facework Specific verbal and nonverbal messages that help to maintain and restore face loss (our image) and to uphold and honor face gain Ex: tripping and making it look like it wasn’t your fault and everything is okay Collectivism and Individualistic Cultures Ting-Toomey bases face-negotiation theory on distinction between collectivism and individualism o Collectivism and individual differ in how one perceives Self Goals Duty Collectivistic culture o People identify with a larger group responsible for providing care in exchange for group loyalty; we-identify Individualistic Culture o People look out for themselves and their immediate families; I-identity More than two-thirds of the world born into collectivistic cultures Less than one third in individualistic cultures o The we-identity of the Japanese is quite foreign to the I- identity of the American Self-Construal People are not cultural clones o People within a culture differ on the relative emphasis they place on individual self-sufficiency or group solidarity o Self Construal Self-image; degree to which people conceive of themselves as relatively autonomous from, or connected to others Independent self values I-identify and is more self-face oriented; individualistic cultures Interdependent self values we-identify and emphasizes relational connectedness; collectivism The Multiple Faces of Face Face is a universal concern o Extension of self-concept, a vulnerable, identify-based resource Face-Negotiation Theory Face maintenance is a crucial intervening variable that ties culture to people’s way of handling conflict Predictable Styles of Conflict Management 5 generally accepted responses to conflict o 1. Avoiding (withdrawal) responding to conflict by withdrawing from open discussion o 2. Obliging (giving in) Accommodating or giving in to the wishes of another in a conflict situation o 3. Compromising (negotiation) Conflict management by negotiation or bargaining; seeking a middle ground o 4. Integrating (problem solving) Problem solving through open discussion; collaboration; a win-win resolution of conflict o 5. Dominating (Competing) Competing to win when people’s interests conflict Predictable Styles of Conflict Management Ting-Toomey and Oetzel stress 3 responses associated with western countries An ethnically diverse sample identifies 3 new conflict styles o 1. Emotional expression Managing conflict by disclosure or venting of feelings o 2. Passive aggression Making indirect accusations, showing resentment, procrastination, and other behaviors aimed at thwarting another’s resolution of conflict Ex: slowing down in traffic Mispronouncing someone’s name o 3. Third-party help Method of conflict management where disputing parties seek aide of mediator, arbitrator, or respected neutral to help them resolve their differences Application: Competent Intercultural Facework Ting-Toomey believes cultural knowledge, mindfulness, and facework interaction skills are requirement for effectively communicating across cultures Critique Procedures and feelings cause concern o Analysis based solely on self-report data, which may be self-serving
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