Organizational Behavior Week 12 of Notes
Organizational Behavior Week 12 of Notes MGT 06300 - 6
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Rossi on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 06300 - 6 at Rowan University taught by Yang Yang in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business, management at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Notes for the Week of April 14th Organizational Structure and Culture: Organizational Structure defined: Division of labor and patterns of coordination Division of Labor: subdivision of work into separate jobs assigned to different people- leads to job specialization Coordination: informal communication, formal hierarchy, standardization 4 Elements of Organizational Structure: Departmentalization: o Effects: specifies how employees and their activities are grouped together o Types of structures: simple, functional, divisional, team based structure, matrix, network Simple: minimal hierarchy, roles are broadly defined, informal communication for coordination, centralized structure. This is okay with a small business. Functional: organizes employees around specific knowledge or other resources (examples: marketing, production) Divisional: organizes employees around outputs, clients, or geographic areas (based on products) GAME THEORY Team Based: self-directed work teams, teams organized around work processes, typically organic structure (wide span of control (only a few supervisors)), usually found within divisionalized structure Matrix: employees are temporarily assigned to a specific project team and have a permanent functional unit. (2 department leader, problem: if they disagree) Network: alliance of firms creating a product or service; supporting forms beehive around a “hub” or “core” firm. (different countries) Span of Control: o Number of people directly reporting to the next level. Related to coordination through direct supervision(formal hierarchy) o Wider span of control possible when: other coordinating mechanisms are present, routine tasks, low employee interdependence (creates lots of conflict). o If you increase layers, you reduce the span of management and vice versa. Formalization: The degree to which organizations standardize behavior through rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms. o Problems with formalization: reduces organizational flexibility, increases job dissatisfaction and work stress. Centralization: (and decentralization): o Centralization: formal decision making authority is held by a few people, usually at the top. o Varying Degrees of centralization in different areas of the company: examples: sales decentralized, info systems centralized. o Problems with centralization: focus power around managers, so staff less empowered. PART TWO Organizational Culture defined: A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguish the organization from other organizations Functions (Why it’s Important): Identity Commitment Stability Defining Boundaries Elements of Culture (schein): Artifacts: visible; products of the organization; easy to observe; difficult to decipher Shared Values: invisible; espoused values (for others to believe); enacted values (actually guide decisions and behaviors); change this first Basic Underlying Assumptions: invisible; unconscious, taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts and feelings; little variation observed in group; actually guides behavior; very difficult to change. Formation and Perpetuation: Actions of founders and leaders o The founder’s personality o Transformational leadership Attracting, selecting and socializing employees o Attraction-selection-attrition theory o Socialization: learning and adjustment Introducing culturally-consistent rewards: o reinforce behaviors that are consistent with cultural values Aligning other artifacts o Stories and legends o Rituals and Ceremonies o Organizational language o Physical structures/symbols Cultures and Mergers: Merging organizations tend to emphasize more quantifiable issues (scale, market share, profitability), overlooking culture. Culture plays a large role in join venture/merger failure In group/out group biases culture shock often causes stress misunderstandings prevent the merged firm from realizing economic efficiencies The socio-cultural integration of two organizational cultures is a major re-gluing job, which is challenging. Merging Organizational Cultures Assimilation: Acquired company embraces acquiring firm’s cultural values Deculturation: Acquiring firm imposes its culture on Integration: Cultures combined into a new composite culture Separation: Merging companies remain separate with
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