New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 4 Notes: Set 3

by: Murry

Exam 4 Notes: Set 3 Bio 1144

GPA 3.68

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the beginning of the reproductive system
Biology II
Thomas Holder
Class Notes
Biology, Reproductive system, Gamete, sperm, egg, Zygote, vertebrate reproduction
25 ?




Popular in Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murry on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.


Reviews for Exam 4 Notes: Set 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/14/16
Exam 4 Notes: Set 3 The Reproductive System • Organismal Reproduction – production of new organism (offspring) • Asexual Reproduction – reproduction that does not involve sexual activity and produces genetically identical offspring o One parent o No gametes o No reproductive organs (usually) o Produces genetically identical organism o Mostly the result of mitosis/cytokinesis o Simple, fast, and energetically cheap o Types of Asexual Reproduction: § Binary Fission – parent divides by mitosis into 2 approx. equal parts • Transverse (split vertically/across) • Longitudinal (split horizontally/lengthwise) § Budding – unequal division of an organism where an outgrowth is produced called a “bud” that detaches and becomes a new individual § Gemmulation – an internal bud forms inside the parental body and when parent is damaged or dies, the internal bud is released • Gemmule – the encapsulated (internal) bud § Fragmentation – multicellular animal breaks into 2 or more parts, and each fragment may become a new individual o No genetic variation o Some animals exhibit both asexual and sexual reproduction: In a good environment, they will reproduce asexually. In a bad environment, they will reproduce sexually. • Sexual Reproduction – involves production of sex cells (gametes) o Male = sperm o Female = egg o Mostly involves 2 parents o At least 2 types of reproductive organs o Energetically expensive, particularly on the female side o Takes lots of time o Genetic variation of offspring o Gametes – haploid cell that is direct result of meiosis/cytokinesis (egg or sperm); halves the chromosome number (23 chromosomes in humans) o Fertilization – fusion of male and female gametes; restores chromosome number in a new genetic arrangement (46 chromosomes in humans) o Zygote – fertilized egg o Types of Sexual Reproduction: § Hermaphroditism – individuals have both male and female reproductive organs • Monoecious – conditions of having box sex organs in the same body o Ex: parasitic worms and earthworms • Some fish experience sex reversal: the same organism can produce either eggs or sperm and switch between the two, sometimes during the same breeding season • Self fertilization – sperm and eggs are produced in the same body (limits genetic variation) • Cross fertilization – 2 individuals; each individual capable of producing offspring, but eggs and sperm can cross over § Parthenogenesis – the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg; sperm may or may not initiate development • Identified in all vertebrates except Class Mammalia § Biparental Sexual Reproduction – 2 individuals with separate sex organs and sex cells; offspring produced from union of male and female gametes from genetically different individuals • Reproductive Patterns (Modes) In Vertebrates: o Oviparous – condition of female laying eggs outside of the body; fertilization can happen either internally or externally § Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals § Ranges from abandonment to extensive care depending of species o Ovoviviparous – condition of eggs enclosed in a structure retained within the female’s body before giving birth to live young; internal fertilization § Nutrition comes from egg yolk § No maternal connection § Fish, amphibians, reptiles o Viviparous – condition of live bearing with a maternal connection; fertilization must be internal § Placenta is advanced feature allowing offspring to be born in more advanced state and allows for maternal connection; provides nourishment and gas exchange § Development within oviduct or a uterus § Parental care and protection § Highly energetically expensive for female § Mammals (except 3) and some reptiles • Sexual Reproduction over Asexual Reproduction o Why is sexual reproduction more common, esp. in vertebrates? § SR is more costly, takes more times, and requires more complex structures. § Main advantage of SR is genetic variation à some individuals will survive tough environmental conditions and changes § Natural Selection – measure of the differential survival and differential reproduction § AR produces little/no genetic variation (“clones”) à little chance of survival in tough conditions à natural selection will wipe out nearly all of them so they are most subject to extinction


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.