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the endocrine stysem

by: Kara barber

the endocrine stysem Hum biol 102-0002

Kara barber
GPA 2.9

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first set of notes after the most recent exam
Intro to Human Biology
james marker
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara barber on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hum biol 102-0002 at University of Wisconsin Green Bay taught by james marker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin Green Bay.

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Date Created: 04/14/16
The Endocrine system Function- regulate metabolic function of the body (processes involving slow/ long term regulation) Ex: Growth, gender maturation, pregnancy Endocrine tissue Endocrine glands- total of 8 “standard” glands Originally thought the endocrine system was defined by the terms of the function of these 8 glands. It is now known that other tissues play a part in the endocrine system Endocrine “tissue” Special cells that make up parts of organs Function of endocrine tissue  Synthesize hormones  Store hormones  Release hormones Hormone A substance that is released in one area of the body that has its effect in another area A. Biochemical nature 1. Protein- from small peptides to large proteins molecule a. ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) has 9 amino acids b. Insulin- 2 chains of 30 amino acids c. Prolactin- 198 amino acids 2. Steroids- e.g. cortisol, testosterone 3. (amines- catecholamine {NE and EPI} and thyroid) B. Mechanism of hormonal function a. Hormonal release/ secretion i. Neural stimulation e.g. hypothalamus releasing hormones in response to a stimulus from elsewhere in the brain ii. Hormonal stimulus e.g. cortisol released from the adrenal cortex in response to ACTH iii. “triggered” by biological compounds e.g. insulin release in response to glucose iv. Regulation of hormonal control- via Feedback Loops in which hormone release is regulated by resultant “products” and/ or tartconditions, these are usually negative feedback loops Hormonal Action  Target cells- the site of hormone including: o Organs/ tissues- e.g. glucagon acts on the liver to stimulate glycogen breakdown o Others endocrine glands- e.g. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxin  Acts via coupling with a receptor o Surface receptor-stimulates the activation of a “2 messenger”, cAMP which in turn activates various enzymes (and their reactions) o Intracellular and cytosolic receptors- influence gene expression and/or protein synthesis o Regulate metabolic / physiologic processes  Short term- glycogen breakdown, controlling blood sugar  Long term- growth, sperm formation, ovulation Presence in body (blood)  Half life- the amount of time required for the concentration of a substance to be reduced by one half of its initial value o Half life of a hormone is consistent with the function of the hormone o Examples  Epinephrine---1-2 min  Sex hormones---30-90 min  Thyroid----7 days  hcg- human placenta---8 hours  episodic release- hormones are often released in bursts in relation to some internal signal Integration/ interaction with the nervous system  “higher brain centers”- the hypothalamus which receives input from other areas of the brain and body will in turn inhibit/ stimulate the “Master Gland”  Neurohormones released by a certain nervous act as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone Major Endocrine Glands and their Function  Hypothalamus- special part of the brain involved in many regulatory processes including regulation of the pituitary gland  Pituitary (master gland)- regulates the function of many other glands  Thyroid gland- releases thyroxin which is responsible for determining basal metabolic rate  Parathyroid gland- releases parathyroid hormone which is responsible for controlling the levels of calcium and phosphorous in the body  Adrenal glands- effect many aspects of our physiology o Cortex (outside)- releases hormones that help regulate blood sugar, body water, o Medulla (inside)-  Releases adrenaline (epinephrine) (and some norepinephrine)  Adrenaline has a myriad of effects on the body but particularly in regards to maintaining adequate blood glucose concentration and appropriate cardiovascular regulation  Pancreas- regulates concentration of blood sugar o Releases insulin which facilitates the uptake of sugar into cells o Releases glucagon which causes the liver to put sugar into the blood  Type 1 diabetes (juvenile onset) is a condition in which a person does not release insulin and are unable to control their blood sugar  Complications include nerve and retina deterioration  Therapy—insulin  Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person is insensitive to insulin and therefore unable to control their blood sugar  Associated with obesity  Therapy---insulin, other drugs, exercise  Testis- release testosterone which is responsible for development of male secondary sex characteristics, sperm formation, and sex drive  Ovaries- release estrogens that are responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics---(progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy) pregnancy  Pineal gland- skin pigment  Thymus gland- maturation of T cells (immune system)  Prostaglandins- hormone like chemicals released by a number of types of cells that are involved in a wide range of regulatory processes Endocrine disorders and treatment  Hormone deficiency- GH or insulin deficiency is usually treated by hormone replacement/ supplement therapy  Hormone excess usually a result of tumors that release excessive amounts of a hormone. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tissue or in some cases, blocking the action of the hormone with various drugs  Medical specialists- endocrinologist


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