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Chapter 2-part 1 notes

by: Katy Cook

Chapter 2-part 1 notes SOC 310

Marketplace > Purdue University > SOC 310 > Chapter 2 part 1 notes
Katy Cook
GPA 3.45
Racial and Ethnic Diversity
Jean Beaman

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These are the Chapter 2 (part 1) notes from the readings.
Racial and Ethnic Diversity
Jean Beaman
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Cook on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 310 at Purdue University taught by Jean Beaman in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views.


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Date Created: 02/10/15
First US Congress limited naturalized citizenship to quotwhite personsquot only In most societies several social ranking systems coexist Each ranking system has distinct social categories rewards privileges and power vary with a group s position within the system Theory a conceptual framework used to interpret or explain some aspect of everyday existence Push factors include what is happening in the immigrants home country ex high unemployment Pull factors generate migration by the attraction of better conditions ex abundant jobs Movements of forced labor involuntary immigration such as the forcible removal of Africans to North America Contractlabor movement the migration of indentured Irish servants to the English colonies and of Chinese laborers to western North America Political refugees streams of refugees produced by war Voluntary migration migration primarily by choice Colonization migration voluntary migration of powerful colonizers Genocide the deliberate and systematic attempt by one group to exterminate another group Egalitarian symbiosis peaceful coexistence and a rough economic and political equality between two racialethnic groups Hierarchy a signi cant socioeconomic strati cation Migrant superordination when the migrating group imposes its will on indigenous groups usually through more advanced weaponry and political or military organization Indigenous superordination when groups immigrating into a new society become subordinate to groups already there Cultural pluralism substantial economic and political assimilation and greater equality along with a signi cant persistence of subcultural distinctiveness 00rder theories racial and ethnic theories that accent patterns of inclusion the orderly integration and assimilation of particular racial and ethnic groups to a dominant culture and society oPowercon ict theories racial and ethnic theories that accent the persisting and great inequalities in the power and resource distributions associated with racial or ethnic subordination in a society oAssimilation the more or less orderly adaptation of a migrating group to the ways and institutions of an established host group oRace relations cycle fundamental social forces such as out migration lead to recurring cycles of contact and assimilation in intergroup history oRace relations cycle contacts competition accommodation and eventual assimilation oContact stage migration and exploration bring people together which leads to economic competition and new social organization 0Competition and con ict ow from the contacts between host people and the migrating groups oAccomodation a critical condition in the cycle often take place rapidly and involves a migrating group s forced adjustment to a new social situation oAssimilation is a process of interpenetration and fusion in which persons and groups acquire the memories sentiments and attitudes of other persons or groups and by sharing their experience and history are incorporated with them in a common cultural life oAcculturation culture assimilation the change of one group s cultural patterns to those of the host or dominant group oGordon s 7 dimensions of adaptation oCultural assimilation the change of one group s important cultural patterns to those of the core society oStructural assimilation penetration of cliques and associations of the core society at the primary group level oMarital assimilation signi cant intermarriage oldenti cation assimilation development of a sense of identity linked to the core society oAttitudereceptional assimilation absence of prejudice and stereotyping oBehaviorreceptional assimilation absence of intentional discrimination oCivic assimilation absence of value and power con ict oFlaw in Gordon s typology omission of secondarystructural assimilation and residential integration oWilliams and Ortega developed 3 groups of assimilation structural cultural and receptional oMelting pot immigrants to the United States lose their racial and ethnic identities as they mix together in one new American blend OHerbert Gans ethnicity is only symbolic and weakening in signi cance oCultural pluralism the view that each ethnic group has the democratic right to retain its own cultural heritage without being forced to assimilate to the dominant culture now called multiculturalism oAndrew Greely ethnogenesis oEthnogenesis the sociological theory that over time immigrant groups not only come to share cultural traits with the host group but also retain many of their own nationality characteristics oEthnic groups share traits with the host group but also retain major characteristics of their nationalities oEmergent phenomenon importance of ethnicity varies in cities and its character and strength depend on the speci c historical conditions in which it grows oProgressive inclusion eventually provide racially subordinated groups with full citizenship oquotAssimilationquot was tainted from the beginning by its association with the notion that only the quotgood immigrant groupsquot were those that could assimilate rapidly and in Angloconformity fashion oSome research suggests that the physical or mental health of immigrant groups declines as they become more assimilated into the core culture oTransnationalism emphasizes the fact that individual migrants tend to migrate along family and friendship networks oTransnationalism views immigration as an ongoing process through which ideas resources and people change locations and develop meaning in multiple settings oUnder modern capitalism much sel shness and narcissism are learned rather than inherent in human biological makeup oln the everyday world racial and ethnic relations are immediately social rather than biological oCompetition theory a view of ethnicity that emphasizes the relative stability of ethnic population boundaries over time and the intergroup competition over resources that result from shifts in these boundaries because of migration oCompetition occurs when two or more ethnic groups attempt to secure the same socioeconomic resources such as jobs or housing oCompetition theorists emphasize that economic struggles often accompany political competition oPower con ict frameworks place emphasis on economic strati cation racialethnic hierarchy and power issues oCaste school of racial relations wellinstitutionalized racial discrimination as the foundation of a castelike system of US segregation and apartheid oExternal colonialism involves the running of a country s economy and politics by an outside colonial power olnternal colonialism the control and exploitation of non European groups in the colonized country passes from whites in the home country overseas to white immigrant groups within the newly independent country oOppositional culture the culture of resistance often found among subordinate groups oAnticoIoniaI nationalism has developed as part of the culture resistance to European colonialism and its racist ideology 0Du Bois succeeded in putting together the rst PanAfrican congress which asked for more democratic treatment abolition of slavery oFour classes that have developed US colonialism oCapitaIists a small group of people who control capital investments and the means of production and who buy the labor of many others oManagers a modestsized group of people who work as administrators for the capitalists and have been granted control over the work of others oPetit bourgeoisie a group of smallscale merchants who control their own businesses and do most of their work themselves buying little labor power from others oWorking class a very large group of buecoar and whitecollar workers who sell their labor to employers in return for wages and salaries oSplit labor market view treats class in the sense of people s position in the economic quotmeans of productionquot and argues that the white employer class and whites in the working class both discriminate against those in the working class who are not white oMiddleman minority racial or ethnic group that occupies an inbetween position in terms of societal power and resources oEthnic enclaves distinctive social and economic niches in US cities oEnclave theorists stress the incorporation of certain groups into the US through the means of small businesses and specialized quotethnic economiesquot oOften children of immigrants assimilate relatively well compared to their parents oPatriarchal system a social hierarchy in which men as a group dominate women as a group especially in terms of socioeconomic power and resources oGendered racism the societal oppression of women of color oTriple oppression the mutually reinforcing and interactive set of racial class and gender forces whose cumulative effects quotplace women of color in a subordinate social and economic position relative to men of color and the white populationquot oRacial formation theory racial relations are substantially de ned by government actions that range from the passing of racist legislation such as restrictive immigration laws to the racially motivated imprisonment of groups de ned as a threat oSystemic racism the white prejudices stereotypes emotions framing discriminatory practices and institutions that are integral to the longterm domination of Americans of color oKey themes of developmentcontinuation of systemic racism olnitiation of oppression mechanisms of oppression privileges and costs of oppression elite maintenance of oppression rationalization of oppression resistance to oppression O


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