NTR Chapter 14
NTR Chapter 14 NTR 213-05
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Weathers on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 213-05 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Laurie H. Allen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Malnutrition Increases illness, decreases life expectancy, and decreases productivity Undernutrition Hunger: recurrent involuntary lack of food Starvation: severe reduction in energy and nutrient intake leading to illness and death Overnutrition Cycle of Malnutrition Undernutrition Increases: Low-birth-weight babies (birth weight < 5 lbs 8oz Infant mortality rate: number of deaths in the first year of life per 100 live births Infections Stunting: decrease in linear growth rate (low height for age) Decreases adult productivity Abdominal obesity Overnutrition Number of overnourished people exceeds the number of undernourished people By 2030, 57.8% of the world’s population will be overweight or obese 40 million children under 5 overweight (30 mil in developing countries) Nutrition Transition Diets in developing countries and rural areas: Limited foods Starchy grains Root vegetables Diets in developed countries and urban areas: Increased variety Increased meats Increased low-nutrient-density foods Decreased activity Causes of Hunger Around the World: Food insecurity Lack adequate physical, social, or economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life Underlying cause: inequitable (unequal) food distribution Results in food shortage or wrong combination of food to meet needs Food Shortages Chronic shortages: Caused by: economic inequities causing lack of money, education, or health care; populations outgrow food supply; culture and/or religion limit choices; environmental damage Famine: widespread lack of food access resulting from a disaster Caused by: drought, flood, crop destruction, wars, civic conflict Causes of Food Shortages Poverty: unable to afford food/medical care; no access to food (EX: no car & grocery store too far away to walk); having to choose between food & other needs Overpopulation: not enough food & resources for everyone Religious/Cultural Practices: may control who eats/how much everyone eats depending on their cultural value (EX: male, female, working); certain foods may be forbidden or only eaten for special times of the year Limited environmental resources: not enough for everyone Poverty World population growth Agricultural Challenges: Arable land capita per population Poor-quality diets Malnutrition can occur even if enough food is consumed Typical diet in developing countries: high-fiber grains and root vegetables with little variety Deficiencies in protein, iron, iodine, vitamin A, niacin, thiamin, vitamin C, folate, zinc, selenium, calcium At most risk: ill, pregnant, young, and old Protein & micronutrient deficiencies Iron-deficiency anemia: Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia — a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues. As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron Iodine deficiency: the thyroid swells due to lack of iodine Kwashiorkor: a form of malnutrition caused by protein deficiency in the diet, typically affecting young children in the tropics US food insecurity Education & Poverty Food desert Area that lacks access to affordable foods that make up a healthy diet: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk Supermarkets in suburbs Small convenience stores in cities Far from rural areas and migrant worker labor camps Vulnerable life stages Pregnant and lactating women and small children High nutrient needs Almost 1/3 of households with children headed by single women live below the poverty line Elderly individuals Higher frequency of diseases and disabilities limiting ability to purchase, prepare, and consume food Associated with more hospital admissions and hence higher health-care costs Millennium Development Goals Eradicating world hunger Address population growth Meet nutrient needs of a large and diverse population with culturally-acceptable foods Increase food production while maintaining the global ecosystem Short-term food aid Bring food into areas stricken by starvation Generally consists of agricultural surpluses from other countries Often is not well-planned nutrient content Does little to prevent future hunger Contributors to high birth rate High infant and child mortality rates Children work farms, support elders, and contribute to the family’s economic survival Gender inequality: girls work at home rather than go to school; women have few options other than staying home and having children Programs to decrease birth rate Foster economic development Ensure access to food, shelter, and medical care Reduce need for working children Provide education for girls Provide health and family planning services acceptable to the population and compatible with cultural and religious beliefs Sustainable agriculture Food production methods that prevent environmental damage and allow land to restore itself so food can be produced indefinitely Crop rotation decreases nutrient depletion Diversification maximizes natural pest control and fertilization, protects farmers from market changes Organic techniques reduce agricultural chemical use and pollutants but more land use (lower crop yields) Economic development Hunger will exist as long as there is poverty The poor do not have access to enough foods to maintain nutritional health Need: Economic development leading to safe and sanitary housing, access to health care and education, resources to acquire enough food Government policies that reduce poverty and improve food security Trade Industrial economic development can help provide food increasing international trade Food availability dependent on whether a country’s agricultural emphasis is on producing subsistence (for food) or cash crops (for trade) Ensuring a Nutritious Food Supply: Fortification Considerations Vitamins and Minerals Will not provide energy & need fat/water to be absorbed Help increase protein quality and eliminate micronutrient deficiencies Foods selected should be consistently consumed by the majority of the population Nutrient should be added uniformly and in a form that optimizes its utilization Biofortification: uses plant breeding to increase the nutrient content of staple foods Providing supplements Supplementing specific nutrients for at risk segments of the population can prevent micronutrient deficiencies such as Vitamin A (shown below) , Iron, & Folate Nutrition education Healthy diets improve current health by optimizing growth, productivity, and well- being and preventing chronic diseases Increasing nutrition knowledge can reduce medical costs and improve quality of life Helps stretch limited food dollars Teach consumers what foods to grow Promote breastfeeding Teaches how to prepare foods from commodity distribution programs and food banks Explains safe food handling and preparation Hunger relief in the US Church, community, and charitable emergency food shelters provide basic nutritional needs Food distribution programs use food obtained through food recovery, which involves collecting food wasted in fields, commercial kitchens, restaurants, and grocery stores and distributing it to those in need Feeding America: leading US hunger-relief charity; network of food banks Nutrition safety net Federal programs that provide access to affordable food and promote healthy eating Combination of general nutrition assistance with specialized programs targeted to groups with particular nutritional risks One in every 4 Americans receive some kind of food assistance Nutrition Assistance Programs Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): monthly coupons or debit cards for food purchases (formerly Food Stamps) Four other programs targeting high-risk groups National School Lunch Program Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Child and Adult Care Food Program National School Breakfast Program Nutrition Assistance Programs: WIC The WIC food packages provide supplemental foods designed to meet the special nutritional needs of low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding postpartum women, infants and children up to five years of age who are at nutritional risk. Provides nutrition education Eligibility based on income and presence of nutritional risk Local Hunger Guilford county is ranked as one the highest in food insecurity in the US! 67% children are on free or reduced lunch
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