Chapter 3 Arceneaux Reading Notes
Chapter 3 Arceneaux Reading Notes Pols 328
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Kienle on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pols 328 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Professor Arceneaux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Politics of Developing Nations in Political Science at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Constitutions: From States & Nations to Regimes (Arceneaux CH 3) Tuesday, April 12, 2016 Constitutional Foundations o The Caudillo Period (1820s-1870s) Time of civil conflict brought about through problems created during the wars for independence and colonial legacies Peninsulares fled, mestizos gained representation in the military to make a living, and the creoles supported the growing mestizo army Caudillo = a military leader Power hungry, ruthless Loyalties only go as far as regions, not national Economic Troubles The war left Latin America in great debt and economic turmoil Loans from the British used to fight the war needed to be repaid Civilian labor force was devastated and livestock populations declined heavily Creoles retreated to their haciendas and lf the caudillos to fight over the presidency Mestizos only career option was the military, fueling the caudillos Caudillo Politics A term used to describe the cycle by which different caudillos would take the Presidency A caudillo would use force to take power and the presidency by using his army He would find more debt than wealth, leading his army to withdraw support as they are not getting what they were promised He would be weakened just enough for the next Caudillo to forcefully take the presidency to start the process over Most infamous caudillo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico Known for being overly harsh towards rebels Started in the Spanish Royalist army Took advantage of the port in Veracruz and confiscated funds regularly Would take the presidency ten different times for his own personal gain in Mexico In 1854 he accepted 10 million dollars from the United States to hand over what would become southern Arizona Frequently switched sides politically based on what would benefit them most o The Export Economy (1860s-1930s) Latin American economic growth was stifled for various reasons for hundreds of years Mercantilism stifled industrial growth for 300 years Caudillos after independence prevented Latin America from prospering economically Europe and United States industrialization and business was rapidly growing and prospering Latin America realized they could not keep up Realized that they could fill the role of providing raw materials and export products for the larger foreign market While this brought wealth, it also brought dependency and inequality Often only exported one commodity El Salvador: coffee, Bolivia: tin, Venezuela: oil, etc Only those with access to foreign markets prospered Export Economy dealt a fatal blow to the caudillos Mestizos came back from their haciendas and got more involved in law and government to make sure that their goods were exported Railways, roads, and telephone lines designed to move exports spurred national integration Exports funded government infrastructure and a stronger national military During this period, relatively strong states developed in LA for the first time Search for a nation remained difficult Latin American Liberals blames mestizos, indigenous, the illiterate and poor for the ills of their country Positivism: a way of governing that looks to science and empirical knowledge and away from tradition or religious values to guide government Embraced this to provide a clean break from the past Positivism placed elites at the helm of government and excluded lower classes until they could become educated enough to make government decisions A rise in democratic institutions due to export economy Low participation rate Women could not vote, indigenous had trouble gaining citizenship Increase in competitive political parties among elite men Conservative party: fought to maintain traditional interests and ideals and the Church Liberal party: fought for commercial interests and building middle classes Socialist party: fought for suffrage, worker's rights, and social issues Liberal parties did the best, but barely Promised things they could not keep o The U.S. Umbrella Spanish- American War 1898 saw the rise of the United States globally when they acquired Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam and The Philippines From this point on, US interests shaped Latin American state building Roosevelt Corollary An addition to the Monroe Doctrine stating that the United States is the regional police regarding collecting debts for the Europeans U.S. relations in LA led to dollar diplomacy The use of a country's financial power to extend its international influence This had many economic and ethical pitfalls o The Great Depression 1929 Global economic crisis ensued after the U.S. stock market crash Caused the export economy unsustainable for Latin American countries Prices and profits fell incredibly rapidly Democracy could not protect its interests and had to be overthrown Much of Latin America fell victim to military coups as profits from the export economy strengthened the military and allowed it to take power Great depression was unique as it under-cutted not only exports but imports too Reduced foreign investment and led to shortages in manufactured goods from, abroad In Argentina in 1930, the military regime enacted the National Commission for Industrial Development Promoted foodstuffs, textiles, and leather Start of government initiated industrial growth in Latin America Economic recovery came faster in Latin America than it did in Europe or the US Allowed small industrial growth and a push toward the populist era o The Populist Era 1930s-1960s World War II lengthened the economic struggle in Latin America with Europe and the US that was triggered by the Depression Further incentive for Industrialization Import-Substitution Industrialization Economic policy that guided this incentive Called for the temporary use of protectionism to create a market for domestic goods Designed to give infant companies some time to grow and prosper and industrialize Governments placed taxes on imported foreign goods to raise their prices Dependency Theory ISI placed under this category Theory rejected classical economics and held that certain goods, such as agriculture or raw materials, were not profitable because their prices didn’t rice in tandem with industrial goods as the economy began to grow Classical says free trade will "lift all boats" Implicated that the import-export economy doomed Latin America to the wrong side of economics; dependency Solution was to break economic ties with industrial countries Dependency theory helped point out that external influences affected the economy too Populism ISI lent itself to populism, as it targeted domestic markets and opened opportunities for the working and middle classes to grow Wages, worker's rights, safety, pension programs, welfare programs, etc. became installations of the ISI policy Middle class also benefitted bc more jobs were created Populism was also compatible with electoral politics For the first time the lower classes felt as part of the nation Populism did not apply to all sectors Shouldered agriculture and traditional export sectors with heavy taxes, making it harder for them to prosper and prohibited them from putting their goods on the market Large businesses favored the protection from foreign companies, but over time these companies just jumped tariff walls and invested in the country anyway Many still found favor in industrial politics, but making backdoor deals with foreign countries was easier as they did not have to deal with labor unions and high taxes to pay for social programs that came with populism Populism also introduced patronage as a central political strategy, which affected the political parties in LA for years to come A hidden undercut populism and ultimately causes its demise: Presumption that subsidized industries would not only grow but prosper enough to function in the global market In reality, they grew, but not productively Were dependent on government subsidies to survive Agriculture in Argentina dropped down to 11 percent at this time period o Cold War and Bureaucratic Authoritarianism military has been involved in politics in LA since the beginning of time, but usually deemed their politics as transitory They would overthrow a bad president and replace them with a "better" one that would perhaps stay long enough to stabilize things Starting in the 1960s, the military started intervening for their own purposes and by their own designs Bureaucratic Authoritarianism Stemmed from the strict political environment that was created form Cold War Politics National security Doctrine Held that the threat of nuclear war locked the U.S. and Soviet Union in a stalemate and meant that the real war between capitalism and communism would occur in the developing world Thus, the military used this as a way to justify their interventions in LA politics; to combat communism 1964 and on, LA began to experience a wave of military coups Alliance for Progress gave much financial aid to LA from the US in an attempt to combat communism and ills that came from rebellions Bureaucratic authoritarianism had its own solution against these rebellion, however Repression Military was harsh, ruthless, murderous, and corrupt Murdered thousands of people who opposed them or gave the impression of opposition This led to a push for human rights trials the avenge the thousands of people the military killed or kidnapped Most military interventions were unsuccessful at consolidating governments Popular sovereignty remained the only way to govern End of the Cold War signified the end of the military using communism as an excuse for intervention o Washington Consensus & Pink Tide After the fall of bureaucratic authoritarianism, the reinstated democracies were racked with debt 1990S Neoliberalism emerged as the primary way of thinking Bc neoliberal reform was so widely accepted in the region and backed by the U.S. it was called the Washington Consensus Started with NAFTA opening trade flow between themselves, Canada, and Mexico in 1994 Later that year the first Summit of the Americas was held in Chile to initiate work on the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) The U.S. got cold feet and would not agree until there were hefty reforms in Latin American economies Under the Washington Consensus At first economies grew Privatization swelled state accounts and deregulation encouraged more business and eager investors Over time, austerity wore off and the Washington consensus identified new vulnerabilities Inequality and poverty remained Skittish investors would withdrawal and throw economies in tailspins In reality, most LA wasn’t better off and many were worse off Caused LA to be skeptical and under-confident in U.S. rule and leadership Hugo Chavez of Venezuela and Nestor Kirchner of Argentina aggressively opposed the Washington consensus and U.S. leadership U.S. fueled this by enacting CAFTA, or the Central American Free Trade Agreement A treaty that excluded the more vociferous middle-income countries in South America Fueled progressive politicians critical of the United States Analysts refer to the vast amount of politicians interested in political equality as the "pink tide" Pink coming from the fact that they are not as "red" as the extreme right-winged politicians Pink tide swept through LA in the early 2000s Pink tide not just about US policy Also strives to overcome past corrupt policies Wanted economic and social reforms that benefitted the middle and lower classes Pink Tide leaders were skeptical of the capacity of democracy to effectively empower common people Constitutional Development in Latin America o Constitutions set the rules for the game and maps out the formal distribution of powers throughout the states "power maps" o Constitutions emerged from vast realms of political thought Conservatives: wanted a place for the Church, the military, and a strong centralized government focused at the executive Radicals: wanted a sense of majoritarian activism in the government and wanted to create strong parliaments Liberals: looked more to U.S ideals; a presidential systems, checks and balances, and a strong focus on protecting individual rights o Constitutions emerged and appeared to be liberal documents Presidential systems, political and civil rights protections, and checks and balances Had loopholes for conservative policy The executive had a ton of power; constitution tilted more towards presidential power instead of a balance Presidents were allowed to use "states of exception" as justifications to go outside constitutional boundaries Could decree laws, suspend rights, intervene in local affairs, and act beyond formal constitutional limitations o Constitutional government is not synonymous with democratic government State of exception laws allowed authoritarianism, but in recent decades LA countries have taken strides to close that loophole and become more democratic Military governments made it a priority in the 1980s to implement "protected democracies" Proposed political arrangements that would institutionalize military involvement in policymaking, ban certain political parties, and offer amnesties to the military Failed o Latin America is a corporatist culture that focuses more on status and rank Corporatism: envisions society as a hierarchical arrangement of groups to secure privileges and associate on the basis of duties and obligations From this, the Church and the military received legal privileges called fueros that were often enshrined in independence and constitutions The church had a monopoly over education and marriage, tax exemption, and the authority to run their own court system The military was not subject to civilian courts Fueros in the Church dies out in the early 20th century, but military fueros pushed on as military invention continued Insult Laws Laws prosecuting people for enacting their Constitutional right to free speech Could have free speech but could not "harm the honor ,morale, or private life of another Basically, no free speech Laws enacted to stop this, hard and ridiculous for the "crime" committed Constitutions and Political Pacts o Constitutions also represent settlements between opposing political forces and their contending values and concerns Political pacts: negotiated compromises wrought by political elites Distributes favoritism in the political order and openly excludes others o Example: Venezuela Pact of Puno Fijo bound its signatories to respect electoral outcomes, create a more activist state, ensure access for each to state jobs and contracts and certain rights for the Church and the military Much more democratic, but still described as a "partyarchy" where party elites controlled a spoils system that encouraged corruption and economic mismanagement o Example: Colombia Columbia's constitution made it so there was equal representation in Congress as well as a need for a 2/3 majority in all decisions Constitutions and National Identity o Procedural democracy: seeks to outline only the bare-bones rules of government and refrains from referencing outcomes or what government ought to do, only what they should not do o Substantive democracy: goes far beyond the detail of government rules and procedures and instead presumes an activist government instilled with already desired goals and values Types of constitutional Reform o Reforms can target the rule of law, the presidency, and congress In LA, reforms have targeted decentralizing government power Reforms to allow the direct election of mayors, governors, etc. Introduced some forms of direct democracies such as referendums, initiatives, and recalls o Popular reforms: reforms that target the popular political interests of the people; usually focus on a single issue o Radical reforms: usually occur after an excluded group has gained power again, reforms that create huge turmoil or amounts of change o Concessionary reforms: reforms can be enacted by traditional, status quo powers hoping to appease critics and opposition parties o Pacted reforms: reforms made by status quo powers that offer nothing to outsiders and only serve to secure their own interests or statuses o Technical reforms: when an array of political parties agree that technical reform of the constitution needs to be made p Formal Constitutional Change o Constituent assembly: a comprehensive overhaul or complete redrafting of the constitution through the use of an assembly expressly convened through congress The calling of constituent assemblies have become a highly politicized issue in LA o Partial reform: includes amendments, deletions, or alterations to the current text Some argue that the constitution should be open to change to keep with changing society, values, and politics Others argue that it is the fundamental law of the land and should remain consistent across time; less amendments o Latin American Countries change their constitutions often; why? Seems to be an ongoing political debate in everyday politics It happens when it is wanted Cultural explanation: legal positivism Type of jurisprudence that holds that the law does not come from some higher up authority or fixed ethical principles, but from the pressing, social, economic, an political issues of the day This is why LA leaders react to urgent issues by redrafting their constitutions o Constitutional change comes through Congress, not through the judiciary like in the US with judicial review LA follows code law, not case law Code law is meant to take judiciary out of lawmaking o This constant change to the constitution has set Latin America on a course of disorder, but ca also be turned around to spur a direction of order
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