UGC 112, Week 3, Boyd
UGC 112, Week 3, Boyd UGC 112 - Timothy Boyd
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UGC 112 - Timothy Boyd
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bella on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to UGC 112 - Timothy Boyd at University at Buffalo taught by Gabriella in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 410 views.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
UGC 112 21015 339 England c 1500 1700 AD gt Succession gt Mid 15th Century 14601470 I Wars of the Roses I Ends in 1470 s and a period of stability I Winner ultimately is Richard 111 Challenged for throne in 1485 Richard defeated and killed at the battle of Bosworth O Winner Henry VII I Henry has a big job Unify England Build up government control Think about tax base and trade How to maintain control O Remove as many other possible claimants to throne O Give land to your best followers redistribute land 339 Henry VII has sons gt Arthur Catherine of Aragon daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand gt Henry VIII 339 At death of Henry VII we get Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon 9 daughter Anne Boleyn 9 daughter Jane Seymour 9 son Anne of Cleves 9 no kids Catherine Howard 9 no kids VVVVVV Catherine Parr 9 no kids I All women were divorced died or were executed except for Parr who outlived him I Divorce was not easy Henry not only divorced Catherine he divorced the Pope O He set up his own Church the Church of England an early protestant church O Protestantism had been growing in Switzerland and S Germany for some years Henry sympathized and then went along 339 England goes protestant and suddenly Spain and sometimes France became enemies 339 Henry followed by the tubercular Edward VI dies at 15 gt Followed by Mary Bloody Maryquot who tried to take England back to Catholicism Married King of Spain gt Succeeded by her half sister Elizabeth I A world of danger men at home who considered overthrowing her Abroad few allies Spain as main enemy Spain was very rich I Not much money coming in no army tiny navy I Elizabeth Gloriana a piece of brilliant propaganda I 1 big ally Dutch I Progresses tours of countryside stayed with Nobles gt Elizabeth never married what now I Iames VI of Scotland who is a distant relative becomes James I of England Solves riff between England and Scotland I Charles I an attempt at absolute monarchy One kings One law One church his version His highhanded ways 9 Brought civil war 16421651 O Helped found North America 1649 Ian Charles tried by Parliament and beheaded Parliament amp generals ran the country 1649 1660 O Including Lord Protectorquot Oliver Cromwell 1660 Restoration O Charles II and then is brother James II gt James II catholic and the government parliament overthrows him and replaces him with his own soninlaw William of Orange I Stadhouder hereditary overseer Marry who is the daughter of James II gt Parliament forced William and Marry to become the first constitutional monarchs I Monarch becomes not owner but chief servant of the state Medieval ideas about space Earth is center Surrounded by 10 spheres Movement in circles Heaven about all else Round or at Made up of 4 or 5 elements I Light and heavy elements I Fire air water wood earth Aristotle I 4th century BCE I Geocentric universe I Uniform circular motion Ptolemaic universe I 2nd century I Adds 10 spheres I Eratosthenes measures earth Epicycles problem I Cannot predict motion of planets I Retrograde motion I Epicycles coiled springs Church adaptation I Add a sphere for heaven I Man at top of great chain of beingquot I Earth is center of all I Becomes doctrine Nicolas Copernicus 1473 1543 I On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres I Published on deathbed I Universe is heliocentric Response to Copernicus I Contradicts church and Aristotle I Upset the balance of things I Declared him wrong I Book banned ca 75 years later Changeable Universe I Supernova in 1572 I How can universe be finished Tycho Brahe 15461601 I Observed night sky I Rudolfine Tables I Had fake nose and pet elk Iohannes Kepler 15711630 I Brahe student I Mathematician Kepler s Universe I Published Astronomia Nova I Elliptical orbit I Planets move at various speeds Galileo Galilei 15641642 I Theologian turned math professor I Experiments with motion and gravity New scientific method I Prior thought deductive reasoning general to specific I New thought inductive reasoning specific to general Invention of the Telescope I In the Netherlands in early 1600s I Galileo first to use for stargazing Observations of Galileo I Moons of Jupiter I Phases of the moon and Venus I Proves that planets are orbiting the sun Observations of Galileo I Identifying the milky way I Imperfections of the moon I Sunspots Dialogue Concerning the two chief world systems I 1632 I Copernican vs Ptolemaic Systems 0 v Galileo Declared a Heretic I Seen as a real threat I Committed to house arrest I Continues research 339 Science Cant Stop Wont Stop I Things can be changed by science I What other human hierarchies can be changed I Issues about O Divine rule O Class systems
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