The Logic and Methods of Social Inquiry
The Logic and Methods of Social Inquiry
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Date Created: 04/09/14
Highlited words are Key Terms The practice of social research Aggregate includes groups organization collectives and so forth Social scientist study what goes on between them Social scientist try to understand the systems in which people operate the systems that explain why people do what they do Logical sets of attributes The variables sex is made up of the attributes male and female Are characteristics or qualities that describe an object A variable with values that are not problematic in an analysis but are taken as simply given It is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable A variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another Research is done for three reasons Exploratory Describing Explanatory An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event An approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few casual factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations In other words starts with dataexperience and data informs theory The logical model in which specific expectations of hypothese are developed on the basis of general principles In other words starts with a theory and then gathers the data The world according to Babbie What s really real The premodem view Things are as they seem The modem View or Poststructuralist view There is no objective reality Looking for Reality Knowledge from agreement reality Assertions must be both logical and empirical The science of knowing or the study of valid knowledge A subfield of epistemology Research Questions lnforrnation to advance theory Always oriented to cause and effect or possible conditions and outcomes Always developed form theory X 9Ydependent Where Y is what we are trying to explain and X are how we explain Y The Practice of Social Theory Chapter 2 Earl Babbie Quantitative data9 Numerical Qualitative data9 Nonnumerical categorical Social theory attempts to discuss and explain what is not what should be Three major purposes of social research exploration description and explanation Theories have 3functions 1 they prevent our being taken in by ukes 2 Theories make sense of observed pattems in a way that can suggest other possibilities 3 Theories shape and direct research efforts pointing toward discoveries through empirical observation A model of frame of reference through which to observe and understand With paradigms we can better understand the bizarre view and actions of others who are operating from a different paradigm We can profit from stepping outside our paradigm Events that fall outside the expected or standard pattems Paradigms are neither true nor false Macrotherory Deals with large aggregate entities of society or even whole societes Microtheory Deals with issues of social life at the level of individuals and small groups Introduced by Auguste comte this philosophical system is grounded on the national proofdisproof of scientific assertions assumes a knowable objective reality Karl Marx 1818 MarX s con ict paradigm focused on the struggle among economic classes George Simmel Was the first European sociologist to in uence the development of US sociology Cooley Idea of Primary group Looking Glass Self Mead Emphasized the importance of our human ability to take the role of the other Symbolic Interactionism A paradigm that views human behavior as the creation of meaning through social interactions with those meanings conditioning subsequent interactions Ethnomethodology Expected behavior Methodology of the people Structural Functionalism Theory grown out of a notion introduced by Comte and Spencer A paradigm that divides social phenomena into parts each of which serves a function for the operation of the whole Feminist Paragdigm Feminist theory and research have focued on the sexrole differences and how they relate to the rest of social organization Point to the limitations in how other aspects of social life are examined and understood Critical Race Theory Generally associated with civil rights movement of the mid l950 s and racerelated legislation ofthe l960 s A paradigm grounded in race awareness and an intention to achieve racial justice WEB Dubois Pointed out that African Americans lived their lives through a dual consciousness as Americans and Black people Interest ConvergenceThe thesis that majority group members will only support the interests of minorities when those actions also support the interests of the majority group Positivism has generally represented the belief in logical ordered objective reality that we can come to know better and better through science Postmodernism A paradigm that questions the assumptions of positivism and theories describing an objective reality Often portrayed as a denial of the possibility of social sciences Critical Realism A paradigm that holds things are real in so far they produce effects Suggest that we de ne reality as that which be seen to have an effect Paradigms are general frameworks or viewpoints They provide ways of looking at life and are grounded in sets of assumptions about the nature of reality A law is an observed regularity A theory is a symmetric explanation for observations that relate to a particular aspect of life Theories explain observations by means of concepts Concepts are basic building blocks of theory A variable is a special kind of concepts A speci ed testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition more generally an expectation about the nature of things derived from a theory It is a statement of something that ought to be observed in the real world if the theory is correct 3 Main Elements in the traditional Model of Science 1 Theory 2 Operationalization 3 Observation 2 Scientist begin with a theory to derive their hypothesis Specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable Elements of social theory include observations facts laws concepts variables axiom The concrete and speci c de nition of something in terms of the operations by which observations are to be categorized Final step looking at the world and making measurements of what is seen Null hypothesis Hypothesis that suggest there is no relationship among the variables understudy Links between Theory and Research In deductive model research is used to test theories In inductive model theories are developed from the analysis of research data
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