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theories of cultural transmission

by: Alexa Notetaker

theories of cultural transmission CRM J 201

Marketplace > Washington State University > Criminal Justice > CRM J 201 > theories of cultural transmission
Alexa Notetaker
GPA 3.14
Intro to criminological theory
Dr. Neuilly

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Intro to criminological theory
Dr. Neuilly
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Notetaker on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRM J 201 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Neuilly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Intro to criminological theory in Criminal Justice at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 02/10/15
Theories of Cultural Transmission Culture 0 What is Culture o It is what we are how we see the world social norms de nes who you are 0 Consists of explicit and implicit patterns of historically derived and selected ideas and their embodiment in institutions practices and artifacts Kroeber and Kluckhohn 1952 p 357 0 Culture can be seen as including 3 levels 0 The Concrete this is the most visible and tangible level clothes music food games ect Provides the focus for multicultural quotfestivalsquot or quotcelebrationsquot The Behavioral This includes language gender roles family structure political affiliation and other items that situate us organizationally in society 0 The Symbolic This level of culture includes our values and beliefs It can be abstract but it is most often the key to how individuals de ne themselves It includes value systems customs spirituality religion worldview beliefs mores ect Hidalgo 1993 o How do we get culture 0 People internalize values and beliefs through learningthrough expe ence What purpose does culture serve 0 Values and beliefs foster group identity Remember Durkheim and the role of crime 0 Culture is what brings us together as well as what divides us 0 4 Subcultural Theories 0 Focal Concerns Theory Walter Miller 1958 0 Six focal concerns serve a value system that has emerged from the realities of life on the bottom rung of society lower economic class culture Smartness refers to street smarts Toughnesspart of street smarts is to act tough To show a speci c part of your self Excitement a way to look smart is to seek out thrills or excitement AutonomyYou don39t show away from trouble you do what you want to do no one is telling you what to do Trouble Linked to toughness nding trouble Don t shy away confront trouble Fate trouble will nd you no matter what you do 0 These aim at dealing with social situations you will encounter when you are in a lower economic class 0 Could lead you to commit crime always looking for excitement and not shying away from trouble 0 These are values that promote crime inducing behaviors o Subculture of Violence Wolfgang and Feracutti 1967 0 Groups with the highest homicide rates hold values and beliefs that promote the use of violence 0 High homicide prevalence areas are different in terms of Importance of human life Expected reactions to stimuli situations Perception of stimuli situations General personality structure 0 Were these norms and values developed through high crime rates or were high crime rates the reason these norms and values came to be 0 Culture of Honor Nisbett and Cohen 1996 o The American South has higher levels of violence that the north because of a culture based on honor Favored values are Autonomy Reputation Military skills Gun ownership 0 Those are seen as correlated with a historical heritage of herding sheep herding inherited by the large Scottish and Irish population These values are needed for sheep herding When not herding sheep these values aren39t necessarily just helpful but they can get you in trouble 0 Code of the Streets Elijah Anderson 1999 c As a reaction formation to mainstream culture urban subculture implies that no signs of weakness can be displayed The code is defensive involves a general contempt for society and is generally limited to the public sphere Bases idea is respect is earned and maintained through toughness In those high crime areas everyone knows the code of the streets but not everyone embraces it however they all abide by it in a defensive manner Decent families know the code and respect it but don39t buy into it and embrace it Street families know the code and embrace it utilize it


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