Lecture Notes- Psych 105
Lecture Notes- Psych 105 Psych 105 - Katie Eichner
Psych 105 - Katie Eichner
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Psych 10507 Introduction to Psychology Spring 2015 Section 7 UCORE SSCI course 3 credits TuesdayThursday 10351 1 50 Room Todd Hall 133 Instructor Katie Eichner Of ce Johnson Tower 305 Email Katieeichnerwsuedu Of ce Hours Tuesday 9301030 Wednesday 34 or by appointment Required Text Hockenbury DH amp Hockenbury SE 2013 Psychology 6th ed New York NY Worth Publishers Course Overview amp Learning Goals Welcome to the exciting discipline of psychology As a general introduction to psychology this course will provide a broad overview of the basic terms processes principles and theories related to the scienti c study of behavior and mental processes A solid understanding of research methodology and the biological basis of behavior will be emphasized Psychology is fundamentally a science and material will be presented and evaluated from a rigorous scienti c perspective This course is also an opportunity to develop sensitivity to and appreciation for the beauty and complexity of human behavior You should come away with a deeper understanding and appreciation of the incredible diversity of psychology and the importance of psychology in daily life The following table outlines how the course learning goals content and assessment components align both with one another and with speci c university learning goals for the baccalaureate degree University Learning At the end of the course students should Course Topics That Advance Assessment Goals Learning Goals Be knowledgeable of the key terms concepts 1 Biology of Behavior Critical amp Creative principles and prominent theories within 2 Sensation amp Perception Exams Thinking psychology 3 Learning 4 Memory Writing Assignment Diversity Be able to explain how biological 5 Language amp Thinking 6 psychological and social variables interact to Consciousness 7 produce individual differences in behavior Social Behavior 8 Motivation amp Emotion 9 Understand how psychology can be used to Psychological Disorders 10 address personal social and organizational Treatment problems Quantitative Be able to identify and interpret the qualitative Introduced at the beginning of Reasoning and quantitative modes of inquiry used within the semester in Exams psychology 1 History of Psychology 2 Information Research Enterprise Writing Assignment Literacy Embedded within all other later content areas to reinforce their central importance Expectations 1 Regular attendance In order to excel in this class you need to attend class every day Any of the material discussed in class may appear on the exams even if it is not in your textbook If you must miss a lecture you are responsible for finding the notes for that day I do not give out lecture notes or Power Point slides so please ask a fellow student for notes 2 Participation Although this is a large class there will be times throughout the semester when we will have discussions or short inclass exercises It is expected that you will participate in class discussionsactivities 3 Respect for others I encourage class discussion and hope that you will voice your opinion about the material ask questions and be a thoughtful and engaged member of this class It is crucial that we respect one another and demonstrate that respect during class discussions Present your opinions in a thoughtful and respectful way keep an open mind and respond to others in kind 4 Course website There is a course website through Blackboard Learning httpsleamwsuedu You are expected to check this website regularly for announcements and other classrelated information Weblinks and documents will generally be posted under the Content tab All grades will be posted in Blackboard The syllabus is available through Blackboard Inclass Conduct 39 Tardiness Please try to arrive to class on time If you are late try to minimize the distraction by quietly closing the door and taking a seat closest to the door you entered Leaving early Notify me before class starts and sit close to the door to minimize disruption 39 Cell phonesElectronic Devices On silent or turned off Do NOT text answer calls surf the web play video games check email etc on your phone during class Laptops Please use only for taking notes and activities related to class Do NOT use your laptop in class to complete assignments for other courses watch moviesvideos browse the web etc as it is disruptive to others Talking This should be obvious but please do not engage in side conversations during lecture class discussionsactivities videos or tests Academic Dishonesty Cheating and plagiarism will NOT be tolerated If you are caught cheating you will receive a zero for that assignmentexam and I will refer you to the Of ce of Student Conduct Please familiarize yourself with the following University website regarding academic dishonesty httpconductwsueduacademicintegrity policiesandresources which provides a comprehensive overview of both cheating and plagiarism Exams 200 pts Exams There will be four multiplechoice exams which are each worth 50 points Information from the textbook not covered in lecture AND information covered in lecture that is not in your textbook may appear on the exam It is important to note that the exam dates are tentative and are subject to change except for the final exam which is set PLEASE NOTE No outside materials are allowed during the exams This includes but is not limited to dictionaries translators notes electronic devices books water bottles coffee cups etc Please remove baseball caps and other brimmed hats A valid form of photo ID school IDdriver s license is necessary to take all exams I will not change your grade on an exam just because you ask Unless you nd an error in the test odds are that your exam grade will not change Please don t waste your time and mine by asking me to change your grade because of the effort you put in to studying If you arrive late to an exam you will not be given any extra time If someone has already nished their exam and left the classroom you will not be allowed to take the test Final Exam May 8 10101210 Final exam times are set by WSU amp cannot be rescheduled It is a University policy that no early final exams can be scheduled or negotiated Please make travel plans accordingly Makeup Exams Please try to avoid missing an exam If you must miss an exam for an excused absence listed in your student handbook notify me in advance and there will be no grade deduction All makeup exams will be SHORT ANSWER not multiple choice Makeup exams must be scheduled and completed within 7 days of the original exam or you will receive a zero Similarly if you fail to show up to a scheduled makeup exam you will receive a zero Makeup exams CANNOT be taken earlier than the scheduled exam time If you notify me about an excused absence within 24 hours after the exam you will be eligible for a makeup but a 10 deduction 5 of the 50 total pts will be taken from your exam grade You will NOT be eligible for a makeup exam if you notify me more than 24 hours after the original exam time Writing Assignments 40 pts The course will require 4 short writing assignments each worth 10 points These writing assignments will help you relate the course materials to your experiences outside of the course as well as push you to examine everyday events from the perspective of a psychologist Writing assignments will reinforce the course objectives identified at the beginning of this syllabus They will provide you with the opportunity to think critically and creatively about how the course material can be used to describe and explain personally and socially relevant issues in the real world Writing assignments will ask you to use or examine the empirical principles and methods psychologists routinely use to collect analyze and interpret information about behavior Doing so will further develop your quantitative reasoning and information literacy skills Finally they will enable you to explore how psychology can be personally relevant to you You will come to appreciate the complexity of your behavior and the diverse ways in which biological psychological and social factors interact to affect it Assignment 1 Plagiarism You will be asked to complete a tutorial on plagiarism and then use PsycINFO to search for recent peerreviewed journal articles on a psychological topic that interests you You will be required to document how you went about locating the primary resource ie where did you look what search techniques did you utilize etc how you determined the relevance of its content and how its ndings contribute to our understanding of the original topic Assignment 2 Media You will be asked to pay attention to popular media sources and then discuss psychological issuesquestionsproblems using the terminology principles and theories you have learned about in this course Assignment 3 Case Study You will be asked to observe your behavior and the behavior of others and apply those observations to psychological concepts covered in this course Assignment 4 Integration You will be asked to choose a psychological topic that interests you and then connect it to other topics in psychology as well as to real world issues and events Each writing assignment must be typed and conform to the format speci ed in the assignment description The instructions for the writing assignments will be available on Blackboard Each assignment will be worth 10 points Assignments submitted late will result in a one point deduction for each day they are late including the due date if the assignment is submitted after the beginning of class Please refer to the due dates on the schedule last 2 pages of the syllabus Note that if you submit the wrong assignment eg submit assignment 3 when assignment 2 is due you will receive a 0 for that assignment I know that not everyone loves taking multiple choice exams and may prefer other types of assignments I will give you the class a choice about whether I should require one additional written assignment on Positive Psychology which may help raise grades for those who don39t perform at their best on exams Please note that this assignment is not extra credit and will be calculated as part of your grade if the class votes in favor Additionally if the class votes to include this assignment the nal grade will be calculated out of 280 points rather than 260 All assignments will be available on Blackboard under the Content tab If you have questions about an assignment email one of your course TAs You may also contact them at least one week before an assignment due date to set up a time to meet and ask questions about or review your assignment Note that you will lose 1 syllabus point if you email the instructor rather than the TAs with questions about the assignments Research Participation 10 pts One objective of Psychology 105 is to provide students with a better understanding of the science of psychology To accomplish this objective you are required to complete 3 hours of research credit You may meet this requirement in two ways 1 Research participation You may serve as a research participant in studies conducted by the Department of Psychology 2 Alternative research activity If for any reason you do not wish to serve as a research participant you may complete the requirement by reading critically analyzing and writing brief papers on selected research articles Details on each of these options are given below All research credits will be due by 5 pm on the Tuesday of Dead Week 428 Each hour of credit will be worth three points with one extra bonus point for completing all three credits Research Participation will therefore be worth 10 points total 3 credits at 3 points each 9 points plus one point for completing all three credits Research participation Detailed instructions about research participation are available on Blackboard If you wish to receive credit as a research participant you will sign up for studies online at httpwwwwsuedu psychologyundergraduate under the link Experiment Signups located at the top right of the page Different research studies will be available at various dates and times and with differing numbers of credits based on the time required to complete the experiment If you choose to receive all three credits as a research participant you must do at least one inperson quotlivequot experiment The rest of your credits can be obtained by lling out online surveys but you must participate in at least one facetoface experiment If you complete 3 research credits online and do not have any that are inperson you will get points for 2 credits only To sign up for the platform and for research experiments go to httpswashingtonstateuniversi sona systemscom click quotForgot Passwordquot and enter your user ID XXXemailwsuedu Your password will be emailed to your wsu email account and you will be able to log in to the system If you are having problems logging in after following the instructions on Blackboard email psvchsubiectnoolwsuedu Canceling an appointment and no shows If you must cancel an appointment after you have signed up to participate in a research study you should communicate this no later than 24 hours before the appointment If you fail to attend a scheduled appointment without notice this will be recorded as a no show Canceling on the web From the main menu of the online experiment web site select the link for My Schedule Credits Sessions you have signed up for are listed under Study Signups Click the Cancel button next to the session you want to cancel Then verify that you are canceling the correct session and select Yes I want to cancel If the Cancel button is unavailable you are not allowed to cancel your participation This is most likely because you have already received credit or because you are within 12 hours of the session Canceling by email Send an email message to psychsubjectpoolwsuedu Your email message must include the following information 1 Name 2 WSU ID number 3 Class 4 Section number 5 Research study number 6 Time of your appointment to participate Consequences of no shows If you complete your 3 credits of research participation without no shows and at least one of those experiments is inperson you will receive 3 bonus extra credit points in addition to the 3 credits you earned from participation If you have 2 no shows You will be locked out of the experiment signup system and will no longer be able to participate in research You will therefore have to complete the other alternative for research participation credit Alternative research activity As an alternative to research participation you may earn credits by writing a critical summary of selected research articles You will be required to write a two page paper based on your reading and analysis of a research article Each writing assignment should take about 1 hour and if successfully completed will be worth 1 hour of credit Therefore you will need to write three two page papers to earn full credit if you choose not to participate in research You can choose from a list of 8 departmentalapproved articles to write your research summary The list of articles and the articles themselves are available on Blackboard Article summaries must be turned in no later than Tuesday April 28 in class In 2 singlespaced pages 12 point Times New Roman font 1inch margins this summary must address 1 questions the researchers were trying to answer and why this was an important questions the purpose and hypothesis of a study 2 participantssubjects in the study 3 independent and dependent variables of the study 4 important ndings and if the researchers hypothesis was supported 5 implications of this finding More detailed information on this option and the 8 departmentalapproved articles will be posted on Blackboard in a handout Remember to use your own words to write these summaries and avoid plagiarizing Do not copy the brief article summary or a summary of another student No credit will be given if the summary is inaccurate unclear or plagiarized Plagiarism will make you subject to penalties described in the WSU Student Conduct Code You may choose to do all three research credits through research participation in which case you need one in person experiment all three through the alternate activity papers or a combination of research participation and papers Extra Credit Zero No Shows 3 pts IF you have zero no shows for your 3 required research credits you will receive 3 points of extra credit See research participation section previous page for more details Three Additional Research Credits up to 6 pts You can complete up to three additional credits of research Each credit will be worth 2 points added to your total grade Syllabus I have written a syllabus for a reason and I expect you to refer to it regularly To encourage this I have given you all 10 automatic points Every time you email me and ask a question that is answered on the syllabus e g what is the date of the exam what is required for research participation etc I will subtract one point Note this does not mean I don39t want you to email me with questions please do Just make sure that you have referred to the syllabus rst Grading Your grade will consist of scores on the components mentioned above for a total of 260 points Extra credit makes the total possible points for the course 269 but your grade will be calculated out of 260 Four exams x 50 points each 200 points Four writing assignments x 10 points each 40 points Research participation 10 points Syllabus points 10 points Total 260 points Extra credit 9 points Total possible points 269 points Grade Percentages A 293 A 9009299 B 8708999 B 8308699 B SOD8299 C 7707999 C 7307699 C 7007299 D 6706999 D 6006699 lt60 1 do not curve exams or round up grades Please do not ask Disputes Students with a grade dispute must present their written rationale regarding the grade to the instructor by email 1248 hours after the posting of the grades on Blackboard WSU Academic Calendar Please refer to the following website for a list of important dates httpcatalogwsueduGeneral AcademicCalendar Accommodations I am committed to providing assistance to help you be successful in this course Accommodations are available for students with a documented disability Please visit the Access Center during the first two weeks of the semester to seek information or to qualify for accommodations drcwsuedu All accommodations MUST be approved through the Access Center Washington Building Room 217 Call 5093353417 to make an appointment with a disability counselor Course Schedule The following schedule is tentative and subject to change I reserve the right to make changes to the syllabus throughout the semester If you miss a class it is your responsibility to get the information regarding any syllabus changes that were announced in class Note Assignments are due in class Any papers turned in after the start of class Will be considered late and points Will be deducted accordingly Date Topic Assigned Reading 113 Syllabus and Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 pp116 115 Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 pp 116 120 Personality Chapter 11 pp 443466 122 Research Methods in Psychology Chapter 1 pp 1741 127 Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2 129 Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2 Assignment 1 Due 23 Exam 1 Chapters 1 2 11 pp 443466 25 Learning Chapter 5 210 Learning Chapter 5 2 12 Memory Chapter 6 217 Memory Chapter 6 2 19 Thinking Language and Intelligence Chapter 7 M Assignment 2 Due 224 Thinking Language and Intelligence Chapter 7 226 Exam 2 Chapters 5 6 7 33 Motivation and Emotion Chapter 8 35 Motivation and Emotion Chapter 8 3 10 Gender and Sexuality Chapter 10 3 12 Gender and Sexuality Chapter 10 3 17 No Class Spring Break 3 19 No Class Spring Break 324 Social Psychology Chapter 12 326 Social Psychology Chapter 12 Assignment 3 Due 331 Social Psychology Chapter 12 42 Exam 3 Chapters 8 10 12 PP Assignment Vote 47 Social Psychology Discussion TBD Articles on Blackboard 49 Positive Psychology TBD Articles on Blackboard 4 14 Psychological Disorders Chapter 14 4 16 Psychological Disorders Chapter 14 Positive Psychology Assignment Due 421 Psychological Disorders Chapter 14 423 Psychological Disorders Chapter 14 Assignment 4 Due 428 Therapies Chapter 15 Research Credit due 430 Therapies Chapter 15 58 Final Exam Noncumulative 1010am Chapters 13 14 15 Positive Psychology Please note The nal exam Will be held in the same room as lecture from 1010am1210pm on Friday May 8 113 Lecture 1 What is psychology psyche mind logy the study of psychology the scientific study of the mind Biological Psychology behavioral neuroscience the study of links among brain mind amp behavior biological psychology the study of the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and how they influence behavior and thought Clinical and Counseling Psychology clinical psychology the diagnosis and treatment of mental emotional and behavior disorders and the promotion the psychological health Cognitive Psychology cognitive psychology the investigation of mental processes including reasoning thinking problem solving perception and language Developmental Psychology developmental psychology the study of how thought and behavior change or remain stake across the lifespan Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Psychology the application of principles of evolution including natural selection to explain psychological processes and phenomena forensic psychology field that blends psychology law and criminal justice health psychology the study of the role psychological factors play in regard to health and human iHness lO psychology lndustrialorganizational psychology application of psychological concepts and question to work settings personality psychology the study of what makes people unique and the consistences in peoples behavior across time and situations sport psychology the study of psychological factors in sports and exercise emphasis often on group dynamics and performance social psychology the study of how living among others influences thought feeling and behavior Subdisaplines all of these subdisaplines are concerned with how people think and behave many of them are closely intertwined 115 Lecture 2 Prehistoric as far back as stone age humans tried to treat mental problems shamans experts on human behavior supernatural explanations would use trephination would drill small hole in skull to release spiritsdemons Ancient views GreeksEgyptians and Chinese were first cultures to focus on natural and physical explanations for disorders hyppocrates greek physician arcophobia fear of heights imbalance of the humors bodily fluids led to disorders ex black bile depression History of early clinical psychology Middle ages 400 to 1400 and renaissance 1400s1600 possesion by demons spirits and the devil witch hunts float tests Asylums 1500s1700 Bedlam in London Medmens pound storage house for mentally ill and social castaways patients chained to the walls whipped dunked in water call for moral treatment emerged in europe and US Late 1700s Dorthy stopped asylums History of Modern Philosoohy Philosophy Aristotle and Locke Empiricism All knowledge and thoughts come from experience Aristotle 3008C to gain knowledge we must observe the world De anima John Locke 1600s Established empiricism measurement and observations Mind is tabula rasa blanket slate Philosophy Plato and Descartes knowledge comes from thinkingreflection plato 400s300sBC to gain knowledge we must think about the world Descartes 1600s innate ideas opposite of tabula rasa interactive dualism split between mindspirit and body Early Perspectives Psychophysics Lab studies of subjective experience of physical sensations 1860s more like Locke the first scientific form of psychology created out of influence of empiricism alowed mind to be scientifically studied Ernest Weber investigated smallest change in weights or length that people could discern Gustav Fechner Refind webers principles of perception Hermann Von Helmholtz studied memory physiology and color vision perception of physical properties is not the same as physical properties themselves ex what weighs more a pound of feathers or a pound of bricks Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt founded first psychology research lab at university of Leipzig in 1879 Edward Titchener Wundts studentprotege structuralism conscious experience can be broken down into components structures Method of introspections working into your own mind for info about conscious expenence this is like descartes Structuralism introspection asked to do something notice details describes them in words 120 Lecture 3 122 Lecture 4 Research Methods Science v Pseudoscience pseudoscience claims presented as scientific that are not supported by evidence obtained within the scientific method pseduopsychologies systems of explaining human behavior that are not based on or consistent w scientific evidence phrenology reading bumps on skull palmistry reading palm graphology analysis of personality through handwriting What is science scientific thinking process using cognitive skills required to generate test 3 revise theories Principles of research design research design plans of action for how to conduct scientific study Empirical Evidence empirical evidence accurate knowledge can be acquired through objective observation measurement and or experimentation variable a characteristic that changes or varies population the entire group a researcher is interested in sample subjects of population that are actually studied Scientific Method STEP 1 Formulate testable hypothesis hypothesis specific informed and testable prediction about the outcome relationship between variables in a research design variables a factor that can varychange in ways that can be observedmeasure stuff you39re manipulation and or observing hypothesis predict changes in variable operational definition defines the variable in very specific terms as to how it will be measured manipulated change STEP 2 Design the study and collect the data must decide which type of design you will use experimental or descriptive then collect data STEP 3 Analyze the data and draw conclusions statistics mathematics used by researchers to organize summarize interpret data statistically significant mathematical indication that results did not likely occur by chance pltO5 meta analysis pooling the results form multiple studies into a single analysis STEP 4 Report the findings pubish or report findings must describe the study accurately in these report useful for replication repeat the study to increase confidence in the findings Research Stratedies descriptive strategies for observing and describing behavior naturalistic obsevation case studies surveys correlational methods experimental strategies for inferring cause and effect relationship among variables Descriptive Studies descriptive studies designs in which the research defines a problem and a variable of interest usually occurs during the exploratory phase of research and leads to predictions and experiments limitations cannot look at cause and effect Case Studies case studies a design in which researcher observes one person over a long period of time limitation not all cases are generalizable naturalistic observation a study in which the researchers unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world Interview survey involves asking people what they think or feel or how they behave questions are asked the exact same way to each respondent limitations may not have a representative sample Correlational Studies correlational design studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another correlation is NOT the same as causationll correlation coefficient a statistic ranging from 1 to 1 that assesses the STRENGTH and DIRECTION of an association between two variables positive correlation one goes up the other goes up negative correlation one goes up the other goes down How to interpret a correlation correlation coefficient r a statistic ranging from 1 to 1 that assesses the STRENGTH and DIRECTION of an association between two variables The number tells us the STRENGTH of the association and the signs tell us the DIRECTION correlation causation Causality Mistakes ex quotThe more firemen fighting a fire the bigger the fire is observed to be Therefore firemen cause the fire Reversed causation incorrectly stating not an effect occurs before it is caused positive correlation ex As ice cream sales increase the rate of drowning deaths increase sharply Therefore ice cream causes drowning Third variable interference by third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables Correlation Pros amp Cons Pros useful when unable to manipulate variables can make predictions about things when we know about correlations Cons cannot look at cause and effect Exberimental Studies Experiment research design that includes independent and dependent variables one variable is manipulated while another is measured w effects indicative of causation participant are randomly assigned to control and experimental groups Benefits can infer cause Limitations results come from a highly controlled usually unnatural settings and are therefore less generalizable 127 Lecture 5 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES independant variables IV a variable that is manipulated by the experiment under controlled conditions to determine whether is causes the predicted outcome dependent variabeDV the outcome or response to the experimental manipulation cofoundingextraneous variable a variable whose influence on the DV cannot be separated from the IV motivation and intelligence Ex ExperimenterA sets up study treating depression medication vs therapy What is IV type of treatment What is DV depression symptoms random assignment assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any group limits the impact of cofounding variables experimental drouplsl a group of participants who receive the treatment of whatever is predicted to change behavior controls grouplsl a group of participants who are treated the exact same as those in the experimental group without the treatment IV may receive placebo participants or experiments knowing which group is control and which is placebo affects results placebo effect a person who gets a fake treatment gets better because they think the treatment will work singleblind studies studies in which participants do know their group assignment doubleblind studies studies in which both he participants and the experiments do not know the participants group assignments technique developed to counter exoerimenter exoectancy affects CHAPTER 2 Neurotransmission 3 major principles a neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system b information travels within a neuron in the form of an electrical signal c information is transmitted between neurons by means of chemicals ex serotonin and dopamin Types of neurons 3 types a sensory neurons communicate between sensory organs and brain b motor neurons communicate between brain and muscles c interneurons carry messages between neurons usually in the brain Structure of a Typical Neuron o39m m39 Anon termuul J lt quot 4 7 v 39 cpu body A quot1 Nodcotnanvqy quot 4 I 39 s 39 it quotquoto quot 39 Axon schwarm ell Myvlm sheath Nucleus Parts of neuron Dendrites fingerlike projections that receive messages from other neuron cel bodv somal contain cell nucleus DNA m long projection where the electrical message travels toward other neurons axon terminal end of the axon where the message gets sent to other neurons axon buttons bubbles of neurotransmitters myelin sheath fatty insulation for the axon makes the nerve impulse faster mutipe sclerosis disease Electrical communication 4 phases 1 resting potential 2 depolarization 3 action potential 39 4 repolarization refactory period all or nothing aw it fires or it doesn39t Neurotransmitters naturally occurring chemicals in the nervous system that specialize in transmitting information between neurons electrical impulse signals release of neurotransmitter from axon terminal Chemical communication between neurons synapse point of communication between Z neurons synapse gap space between the axon of one neuron to dendrites filled with spinal fluid firing neurons releases neurotransmitters into the synapse which float across and bind to receptor sites on the dendrites of the next receiving neuron Neurotransmitters can have different effects each receptor site only accepts specific kinds of neurotransmitters a neurotransmitter can have multiple types of receptors Reuptake Recycling of leftover neurotransmitters The Nervous system and Endocrine Nervous sytem 1 Central Nervous System CNS the brain and spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System PNS all of nonCNS nerves in the body 1 Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord life sustaining functions coordinates thought emotion behavior Brain complex perceptual motor emotional and cognitive functions Spinal Cord connects brain to body relays commands can function wo brain Spinal Relex a simple involuntary behavior that is processed in the spinal cord wo brain involvement 2 Peripheral Nervous System Made up of nerves bundles of axon Sensory nerves contain the sons of the sensory neurons Carries signals from the sense Motor nerves contain the axons of the motor neurons Carries signals from muscles Two Subdivisions Somatic NS involuntary anything you can control Autonomic NS involuntary heartbeat breathing Autonomic selfregulated AUTOMATIC functions and bodily processes controls involuntary muscles organs glands sympathetic and parasympathetic 3 371 xilu39m Iquot u r2pr 1x1 H 39239vquot 5 439an l a my Sawr Sympathetic Auroses prepares body for action in threatening or stressful situations fight or flight system Organs stimulated to fight or flight pupils dilate heart pumps fast lungs pump more 02 Hormones release sweat produced anxiety attacks making nervous Organs shut down to conserve energy digestion shuts down salivation stops dry mouth Parasympathetic calms restores the body to normal resting state after arousal Maintenance system Recovery Processes pupils construct heart rate slows breathing slows digestion reactivate sweatdiminishes Day to day maintenance regulates heartbeat breathing digestion The Endocrine System endocrine system organization of glands that release and regulate bodily W hormones chemicals that travel in the blood stream and carry messages to tissue and organs metabolism digestion blood pressure sexual development and reproduction emotional responses stress Pituitary gland master endocrine gland that controls the release of hormones from other glands in the body acetychloine excitatory neurotransmitter involved in muscles control botox acts as an antagonists and prevents release of acetychloine muscles are paralyzed smoothing out wrinkles 129 Lecture 6 23 EXAM 1 25 Lecture 7 Chapter 5 learning Learning enduring changes in behavior that occur with experience Conditioning learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses ex conditioned to sit here quietly and listen 3 Main types of Learning 1 Classical Conditioning Pavlov Repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response 4 parts Unconditioned stimulus UCS stimulus that EVOKES UCR without previous conditioning naturally occurs didn39t learn it when make loud noise someonejumps Unconditioned resoonse UCR unlearning reaction to UCS without previous conditioning response that was born with Conditioned stimulus CS previously neutral stimulus that has through repeated pairings with UCS acquire capacity to evoke CR flicking lights on and off with loud noise creates startled response Condition resoonse CR learned reaction to CS that occurs because of conditioning associating horse with click and hitting to move faster when clicking means hitting hence moving fonvard Pavolv s Vlassic Experiment Salivating Dogs 1927 Meat naturally brings about salivation so MEAT SALIVATION before conditioning the ringing of a bell does NOT during conditioning the bell is rung just before the presentation of the meat eventually the ringing of the bell alone brings about salivation BELL CONDITIONED STIMULUS SALIVATIONS CONDITIONED RESPONSED learned Example Unconditioned Stimulus public speaking Unconditioned Response anxiety Conditioned Stimulus putting on same suit for public speaking Conditioned Response gives anxiety for putting suit on So the UR and the CR are the same thing The thing that changes is the stimulus that causes the response Example US Thunder UR Startled CS Lightning CR Startled Example Jerry s new wife Mary loves onions and eats them in everything Every time Jerry kissed her on the honeymoon she had onion breath Now whenever Jerry smells onion breath he gets aroused USC kiss UCR arousal CS onion breath CR arousal to onion breath Extinction gradual weakeningdisappearance of conditioned behavior when conditioned stimulus presented without conditioned stimulus giving dog food without bell public speaking without the suit Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of previously extinguished conditioned response WITHOUT exposure to conditioned stimulus Little Albert John Watson Can we condition him to fear a white rat Presented him with lots of animals including a white rat No fear Then presented him with a white rat and loud noise immediately after He became fearful of white rat Stimulus Generalization Next Presented him with a similar objects white fluffy Rabbit Santa claus mask etc After stimulus becomes a CS similar stimuli may produce similar reaction Generalized fear to similar objects Stimulus Discrimination opposite of stimulus generalization after stimulus becomes a OS for some response other related stimuli DO NOT produce a similar reaction ex when cat learns what type of crinkling is his treats and comes running DIZZY IS CATS NAME REMEMBER FOR NEXT EXAM FOR EXTRA CREDIT ex dog attack neutral stimulus rottweiler UCS dog bite UCR fearpain CS Rottweiler acquisition Rottweiler bite CR Fearpain stimulus generalization before extinction other big dogs elicit fear stimulus discrimination Biological Preparedness The idea that an organism is innater predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and response rats learn to associate a shock and flashing light more easily than shock and a bad taste its easier to condition people to fear siders and snakes than electricity animals including humans evolved to associate certain stimuli more easily than others 2 Oberant Conditioning Skinner rewards and punishment Edward L Thorndike 1905 Law of effect Once stimulus and response are associated response is likely to occur in same situation IF pleasant resu f unpleasant result response less likely to occur again in situation Behavior strengthened if followed by reinforcement diminished if followed by punishment Reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavior Punishment decreases the frequency of behavior Negative taking something away Positive adding something a Primary Reinforcer not learned ex food water sex things we naturally like b Secondary Reinforcer learned ex money grades approval things we learned to like Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcers people learn to do the things they get rewarded for gtEXTRNSC studying for a test or Mowing the lawn watching a comedy or eating chocolate gt INTRINSIC Positive Reinforcement stimulus that when presented after a behavior strengthens the behavior addition of a pleasant stimulus ADDING something to increase frequency of behavior Negative Reinforcement stimulus that when removed after a behavior strengthens that behavior removal of an aversive stimulus TAKING AWAY something to increase frequency of behavior taking away something you don39t like for a reward ex A on test no dishes Ex Beeping to get you to put on your seat belt gtnegative Nagging to get you to do the dishes gt negative Take aspirin to get rid of a headache gt negative I want my son to do his hw he does his hw positive give him a cookie praise him buy new toy negative tell him he doesn39t have to take out trash stop nagging him to do hw PUNISHMENT doesn t work as well as reinforcement Punishment Stimulus that when presented after behavior decreases the frequency of that behavior Positive addition of aversive bad stimulus Negative removal of positive good stimulus Effective Punishment immediately following behavior not overly severe consistency explain reasons for punishment 3 Social Learning Theorv Bandural Observational Learning Learning through observing actions of others Modeling Observing and limitations specific behaviors Bandura s Bobo Dolls Children observed adults acting aggressively Children played agreeable with doll after observing Mirror Neurons Neurons that fire while watching someone else do an activity Some neuroscientists believe this aids observational learning Your neurons learn how to fire by watching someone else preform the activity 21 0 Lecture 8 Figuring it out What is the behavior Are we trying to increase it RENFORCEMENT Are we trying to decrease it PUNISHMENT How are we trying to change the behavior Are we adding something POSITIVE Are we taking something away NEGATVE Operant Conditioning Examples A child is given an allowance for good behavior This is an example of reinforcement amp positive An athlete is benched for coming to practice late This is an example of punishment amp negative When Jason talks back to his mother she spanks him This is an example of negative amp positive When Julia gets up on time for school her parents don t make her mow the lawn This is an example of reinforcement amp negative When Carlos hears the smoke alarm of off he leaves his house and goes outside This is an example of reinforcement amp negative BF Skinner Skinner box Apparatus created to study operant conditioning in lab animals try to get rat to push button to release food Shaping Procedure in which reinforcement is given for closer and closer approximations of desired behavior shaping reward behaviors that are steps on the way to the behavior you want a person or horse to do ex smiling and clapping when a baby says Mmm for Mama then Ma then Mama Reinforcement Schedules continuous reinforcement reinforcing a desired behavior every time it occurs vending machine turning on TV fixedratio behavior reinforced only after a specified number of occurrences car salesperson gets a bonus after selling every 5th car sold variableratio behavior reinforced after unpredictable number occurrences slot machine dogs begging fixedinterval behavior is reinforced after a specified amount of time has elapsed getting a paycheck at the end of the week variableinterval behavior is reinforced at unpredictable time intervals rat presses a lever after 1 min gets food next time interval is 3 mins then 4 then 1 etc random drug tests Which reinforcement schedules work best well with variable interval and ratio it takes longer to learn the behavior but it also means extinction takes a LOT longer slot machines dogs begging Why use ooerant conditioning Behavior Modification using operant conditioning to help people develop more effectiveadaptive behaviors Token Economies What is a token economy good behaviortokens tokens can be traded for rewardsprizes Where do we see token economies impatient hospitals treating autism schools Learned Helplessness Martin Seligman Phenomenon in which exposure to inescapableuncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior Dog learns to associate warning light and shock Transferred to a box where escape from shock is possible by stepping over divider Dog doesn39t try to escape the shock Dog has LEARNED to be HELPLESS learned that sock is inescapable One explanation for depression Cognitive Maps and Latent Learning Edward Tolman Showed that rewards aren t necessary for learning to occur Rats learning a maze Group of rats wander the maze with no reward at the end When a reward is presented they go to the end immediately Created a cognitive map of the maze Latent learning learning that is not immediately demonstrated through behavior Shows up when a reward is present CHAPTER 6 MEMORY What is memory Early view Either you remember or you don t Memory as a unitary construct Case of HM Henry Molasion changed that Removed hippocampus No long term memory Could learn tasks but not remember he knew them What does this case illustrate Memory is notjust conscious recall Memom Memory the ability to store and use information Acquire retain retrieve information Three process in memory Encoding transforming information into form that can be enteredretained Storage process of retaining information in memory Retrieval bringing stored information into conscious awareness Three Stage Model of Memory Classification of memories based on how long the memory lasts Sensory memory Shortterm memory Longterm memory Information transfers from one stage to the next Sensory Memory Information from sensory neurons Lasts 14 seconds Helps us seeexperience the world as continuous Iconic memory Visual record Echoic memory Retention of sound
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