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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rooney Hassan on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Chapter 18 Social Welfare Policymaking What is social policy and why is so controversial Social welfare policies provide benefits to individuals through Entailment programs government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law regardless of need Means tested programs government programs only available to individuals below a poverty line Who39s getting what Income distribution the quotsharesquot of the national income earned by various groups Income amount of funds collected between any two points in time Wealth value of assists already owned One third of America39s wealth is held by 1 of the population Income poverty and public policy Wealthy are getting rich while the middle and poor getting poorer Who are Poor in America Poverty line considers what a family must spend for an quotausterequot standard of living 365 million Americans about 123 were poor in 2006 Many people move in and out of poverty in a year39s time Feminization of poverty high rates of poverty among unmarried women What Part of Government Play lTaxation Progressive tax tax people with higher incomes pay a greater share Proportional tax all people pay the same share of their income Regressive tax burden falls relatively more heavily on low income groups opposite of progressive tax Earned income tax credit EIC quotnegative income taxquot that provided income to very popper people in lewd of charging them income tax I Government Expenditures transfer payments benefits given by the government directly to individuals Some transfer benefits are actual money such as social security entitlements Other transfer benefits are quotin kindquot benefits where Welfare quot as we knew itquot I Social Security act of 1935 first major step by the federal government to help protect people against absolute poverty Set up Social Security programs and AFC I President Regain cut welfare benefits and removed people from benefit rolls I Conservatives argues that welfare programs discouraged the poor fro solving their problems IAttitudes toward welfare become quotrace codedquot the belief that most topple on welfare were African Americans Helping the poor Social Policy and Poverty Ending quotWelfare as we know it the Welfare reforms of 1996 Each state to revive a fixed amount of money to run its own welfare programs People on welfare would have to find with in two years Lifetime limit of five years placed on welfare AFDC changed to Temporary Assistance for Needy Families TANF Welfare rolls declined even though income of TANF recipients is still low Myths about immigration I Most are NOT illegal immigrants I Most are NOT from Mexico I Most are NOT consuming federal benefits while NOT avoiding taxes Immigration Today 13 of Americans are first generation immigrants Many are admitted because of high skills and education Immigration Policy and Politics I Immigration has had little support throughout American history I lllegal immigration is a new issue as the distinction between legal and illegal immigration did not exist for the century of American history I lllegal immigration has been a major through difficult issue in presidential politics Washington No general immigration policy until the 20th century Congress banned Chinese immigration Simpson Mazzoli Act 1986 Path to citizenship quotamnestyquot for existing illegal immigrants 3 million immigrants become citizens Employers forbidden from hiring illegal immigrants but they cannot challenge documentation Despite several proposals no major policy changes since And the States States are hardest hit by the costs of illegal immigration Proposition 187 CA cutoff public services to illegal immigrants mostly found unconstitutional Some states punish employers by taking away business licenses Many battles over college tuition breaks Living on Borrowed Time The New deal the Elderly and the growth of Social Security Social Security has grown rapidly since 1935 adding Medicare in 1965 Employers and employees contrite to the social security trust fund the quotbank accountquot into which social security contributions are quotdepositedquot and used to pay out eligible recipients The trust fund will soon be in the red as the ratio of workers to beneficiaries is narrowing The Future of Social Security The problem number of social security contributors workers is growing slowly while number of recipients retired is growing rapid At some timecurrently 2038 payouts will exceed income Solutions of cutting benefits or raising taxes are hard choices How GWB tried and failed to reform social security Bush proposed diversity 2 of social security contraptions to private retirement fundsprivate savings accounts Problem social security trust fund would run out of money very quickly as people put their money into private savings Social Welfare Policy Elsewhere I Many industrialized nations are more generous than the US but the tax rates are higher in those countries that in the US I Other countries especially Social Welfare and scope of government The growth of government has been driven by the growth of social welfare policies which grow generation by generation Democracy and social welfare The US has the smallest social welfare system there is considerable unequal political participation by those that use the programs The elderly are well organized and influential poor are not SUMMARY J Social welfare policies include entitlement and means tested programs J Entitlement programs affect social welfare status but are expensive J Welfare has been reformed J Is social security next TIMELINE 1860 Post civil war Industrialization pushes poverty in inner city as well as immigration influx 1869 SCIENTIFIC CLARITY in the face of poverty in inner cities COS makes a better living conditions for poor scientific approach 1889 THE SETTLEMENT HOUSE the most important was the hull house by Jane Adams run primarily by women a lot of feminists 1916 Progressive era reforms just before WWI the progressive era was on the rise The biggest rush 1913 1916 The change in the 1929 Black Tuesday and the great depression the stock market hit a record low it took 22 years for the stock market to come back to life 1932 The new deal 13 of the US population was unemployed Franklin Roosevelt made the biggest social reform act
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