Chap 4 Notes Parenting
Chap 4 Notes Parenting
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Chapter 4 Notes Experiments of Nature l Experiments of Nature children raised without parents or deprived of a normal environment I Feral children children raised by animals I Mostly children that were already handicapped and abandoned I Difficult to make a strong conclusion about the role of parents I Children in orphanages amp institutions I Absence of appropriate social contact I Failure to thrive l Difficulty forming relationships I Children isolated Genie Animal studies I Role of animal instincts versus environment I Animals can be trained to behave in ways that appear unnatural Kuo 1967 l Konrad Lorenz discovered the phenomenon of imprinting l Irreversible critical period in development remember Genie she was never able to learn proper syntax I Harlow rhesus monkey l Without mothers baby monkeys developed into antisocial adults and had abnormal sexual behavior Associations Parenting and children outcomes l ParentChild Attachment l Securely attached infants more competent I But results are sometimes mixed gt mainly correlational randomization not possible nor ethical l Relationships are dynamic and changeable gt associations may change over time I Attachment may be different with mother versus father I Research suggests that positive outcomes associated with parenting are I General competence Peer relations lnternalization Prosocial behaviors Cognitive development I School achievement I Attachment Style in Adults l Adult Attachment Interview l Internal working model Links between childhood experience and adult attachment classi cations l Secure a positive childhood relationships I Preoccupied a confused accounts of childhood I Dismissing a Devalued their childhood relationships I Fearful a negative or traumatic experiences Parenting Styles l Authoritative parents a competent children I Authoritarian parents a children who were less independent assertive amp achievement oriented l Permissive parents a children were neither independent nor achievement oriented Speci c Parenting Behavior l Vocal stimulation l Encouragement of emotional expressiveness I Support infrequent punishment assigning chores The Human Behavioral denetics l Problem is that all previously mentioned do not account for genes l Geneenvironment interactions I DiathesisStress Model I Limits ofFamiy In uence Rowe 1994 modest twin studies I Intelligence l Personality l Delinquency l nattentivenessHyperactivity l Scarr 1992 quotChildren s outcomes do not depend on whether parents take them to the ball game or to a museum so much as they depend on genetic transmissionquot l The Nurture Assumption Judith Rich Harris 1998 what has been attributed to parent nurture is truly genetic in origin peers have more role I David Cohen 1999 Parents have little impact except sociability Developmental Trajectories Parents guide their children s development in 3 ways 1 2 3 Establish Trajectories determine the direction that child s development will take Mediate Trajectories exert a powerful in uence on how children perceive and react to their environment Modify Speed of Development accelerate or slow down pace of development Establishing Trajectories Create pathways for child s development often based on parental longterm goal Promotive strategies for eg 0 Private religious school 0 Early involvement in sports 0 Buy books Enroll in music classes Help promote progress on the trajectories by encouraging supporting Preventing Strategies Monitoring children Regulate experiences Goal avoid potentially negative outcomes Eg homeschooling Mediating Trajectories 1 l Lack of resources or options may limit parents abilities to establish trajectories Instead parents can mediate trajectories by PreArming preparing children mentally or emotionally for what is coming eg you often hear African American parents preparing their children for the racism and discrimination they may experience offer strategies and draw attention to potential dangers Concurrent Mediation help children make sense of an experience they are going through eg bullying teasing Use of TV as a tool For eg if watching quot16 and pregnantquot with teenage daughter parent can begin conversation about sex contraceptives etc Debrie ng help children process after an event eg unexpected trauma abuse Parents attempt to repair damage and get kids back on positive track Modifying the speed of trajectories l Acceleration l Overstructuring children s play time I Trying to make every moment educational l Leads to stress ad burnout at an early age I Kindergarten is no joke I Deceleration l Protect child I Baby himher l Using paci er or bottle longer I Delay start of school I Promote fantasies belief in fairies and Santa Trajectories and development Two Examples 1 Healthy Physical Development preventing obesity l Model good eating habits l Purchase healthy foods I Cook healthy meals I Control children s eating practices 2 Competent Social Relationships l Parents mediate and monitor peer relationships I Be successful in mainstream culture
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