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Chapter 9

by: Vanessa Beck

Chapter 9

Vanessa Beck
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Beck on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Washington State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 02/10/15
BIO 107 Chapter 6 7 CHAPTER 6 EU KARYOTIC AN DPROKARYOTIC CE LLS Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells a Commonalities i Plasma Membrane ii Aqueous semi uid substance Cytosol iii Chromosomes iv Ribosomes v Others b Eukaryotes quotTruequot kernel i Characteristics 1 DNA in a nucleus 2 Membrane bound organelle 3 Generally larger 4 More complex c Prokaryotes quotbeforequot i Differences from Eukaryotes 1 No nucleus 2 DNA in an unbound region nucleoid 3 No membrane bound organelles 4 Flagella is distinct from the Eukaryotic agella Eukaryotes a Nucleus i Largest organelle ii Each membrane has a lipid bilayer iii Nuclear Envelope 1 Inner Membrane 2 Outer Membrane iv Nuclear Pore D nOut of Nucleus 1 Pore complex 2 Ribosome v Chromatin l packaged with DNA with proteins b Pore Complex i Regulates traf c and signaling between the cytoplasm and the genome ii Target of drugs and pathogens c Nuclear Lamina i Composed of proteins ii Maintains shape of nucleus d Nucleolus i Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis ii A region but NOT an organelle because no membrane surrounds it e Chromosomes i Each chromosome is composed of a single DNA molecule associated with structural proteins ii DNA proteins of chromosomes chromatin iii Modi cation contributes to epigenetic regulation ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM l Endomembrane System a Endoplasmic Reticulum i Biosynthetic Factory 1 Two Distinct Regions a Smooth ER D lacks ribosomes b Rough ER D studded with ribosomes 2 Smooth ER Functions a Synthesis of lipids b Metabolize carbs c Detoxifies drugs and poisons d Stores Calcium 3 Rough ER Functions a Synthesize proteins and glycoproteins b Distribute transport vesicles c Membrane factory for cell b Golgi Apparatus i Shipping and Receiving Center 1 Flattened membranous sacs cis and trans cisternae 2 Not physically connected 3 Functions a Modi es proteins by RER b Manufactures certain macromolecules c Sorts and packages proteins into transport vesicles 4 Characteristics a Cis face D Receiving b Cisternae c Trans face Shipping c Lysosomes i Digestive Compartments 1 Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules 2 Work best in acidic environment 3 Made by Rough ER and transferred to Golgi Apparatus for further processing before forming lysosomes ii Two Major Functions 1 Phagocytosis D Lysosomes digesting food 2 Autophagy D breaking down damage organelles iii Lysomsomal Defects 1 Cause over 50 recognized diseases 2 Ex Tay Sach s Disease d Vacuoles i Maintenance Compartments 1 Derived from ER and Golgi Apparatus 2 Variety of functions in different types of cells ii Food Vacuoles 1 Formed by phagocytosis iii Contractile 1 Found in freshwater protists 2 Pump excess water out iv Central 1 Mature plant cells 2 Holds organic compounds and water MITOCHONDRIA AND CH LOROPLASTS I Mitochondria and Chloroplasts a Mitochondria D ancestors bacteria i Nearly all eukaryotes ii Inner membrane cristae iii Circular DNA molecules iv Smooth outer membrane v Inner membrane creates 1 Inner membrane space 2 Mitochondrial matrix a Cellular respiration occurs b Chloroplasts i Contain chlorophyll and other enzymes that function in photosynthesis ii Found in leaves and other organs of plants and algae iii Structures 1 Outerinner membrane 2 Internal thylakoids sacs to form a granum 3 Stroma internal uid iv Part of plant organelles group called plastids II Peroxisomes oxidation a Peroxisomes i Metabolic compartments bounded by SINGLE membrane ii Scavenge reactive oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide and convert to water CYTOS KE LETO N III Cytoskeleton a Microtubules MTs i Hollow tubes across whole cell 25nm in diameter ii Alpha beta tubulin dimers l orientation iii Assemble with polarity 1 One end growsshrinks faster l the quotplus endquot iv Substrate for motor proteins v Organizes the cells supports movement vi Highways for transportation vii Centrosome start growing negative on inside plus facing outside b Centrosomes and Centrioles i Centrosome has pair of centrioles each with 9 triplets of microtubules arranges in a Ring c Cilia Flagella i Dinner in beating patterns ii Basal body that anchors in cell surface like roots iii Motor protein quotdyneinquot drives the bending movement iv Core microtubules v 9 doublets with 2 microtubules in center 92 structure for vertebrate cilia d Micro laments Actin i Double Twisted strand ii 7 nm in diameter iii Substrate for myosin motors iv Actin D amoeboid movement v Cytoplasmic Streaming l helps distribute cell components in plant cells e Intermediate Filaments i 812 nm in diameter 1 Larger than micro laments 2 Smaller than microtubules ii Stronger than actin or microtubules iii Many protein types keratins desmins etc iv ONLY in animal cell v Neuro laments EXTRACELLU LAR COM PON ENTS I Extracellular Components a Plants have cell walls i Not in animals ii Prokaryotes Fungi iii Protects cell maintains shape iv Embedded cellulose bers v MAY have multiple layers 1 Primary thin exible 2 Middle Lamella D quotgluequot 3 Secondary b Extracellular Matrix i Collagen proteoglycans bronectin ii Integrins lsurface receptor that protein binds to iii ECM has in uential Role in lives of cells 1 Can regulate cells behavior by communicating with integrins c CeHJuncUons i Plants 1 Plasmodesmata channels a Perforate plant cell walls b Watersmall solutes to pass from cell to cell 2 Animals a TightJunctions i Pressed together preventing leakage of uid between cells b Desmosomes anchor i Fasten cells together into strong sheets c Gap Junctions Communicating i Provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells CHAPTER 7 MEMBRANES I Membranes a Plasma membrane i Boundary between separating the living cell from its surroundings ii Exchange materials iii Selective permeability b Phospholipid layer i Hydrophilic Head ii Hydrophobic Tail iii Bilayer can exist as a stable boundary between 2 aqueous solutions iv Fluid mosaic model 1 Lipids and proteins drift laterally c Fluidity i Temperature cool D membrane can switch from a uid to a solid ii Unsaturated v saturated hydrocarbon tails d Cholesterol i Restrains movement of phospholipids ii Fills space in kinks left by cisbonds iii At cool temps l maintains uidity by preventing tight packing iv Reduces uidity at moderate temps but at low temps hinders solidi cation e Membrane Proteins i Classi cations 1 Integral proteins a Anchored proteins b Transmembrane proteins 2 Peripheral proteins ii Ten Functions Transport Enzymatic Activity Signal Transduction Cellcell recognition lntercellularjoining Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix ECM iii Clinically Relevant P P PP NE 1 HIV binds to CD4 and CCR5 in order to infect cell 2 Those who do not have CCR5 are immune to HIV f Carbohydrates in Cellcell recognition i May be covalently bonded to lipids forming glycolipids or proteins glycoproteins ii Vary among species individuals and even cell types iii ABO blood types ceIIceII recognition based on egcoIipid expression II Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes a Production and Creation of Membranes i Built in ER and Golgi Apparatus ii The inside of the vesicles becomes the outside of the greater cell membrane iii Distinct insideoutside faces III Selective Permeability a Membrane i Hydrophobic nonpolar EASILY pass ii HydrophyIic polar NOT easily passable PASSIVE TRANSPORT I Passive Transport INTRO a Diffusion i Tendancy for molecules to spread ot evenly into available space to reach equilibrium b The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane passive transport i No energy used ii Also known as quotsimple diffusionquot iii Substances diffusing down their concentration gradient requires no energy c Effects of Osmosis on Water i Passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane II Tonicity a Isotonic Sqution i Solution concentration is the same as that inside of the cell ii No net water movement b Hypertonic Solution i Solute concentration is greater than that of inside the cell ii CeII Loses water iii Causes shriveling up 1 Animal cells l crenulation 2 Plants cells D pIasmonsis c Hypotonic Solution i Solute concentration is less than that of outside the cell ii Cell gains water iii Can cause to kill animal cells D lyse iv PIants ceIIs 1 Turgor pressure used to creates structure by osmotic cell swelling counterbalanced by the stiff cell wall d Osmoregulation i Organism in aquatic environment lll Facilitated Diffusion a Transport proteins speed or regulate the passive movement of molecules across membrane and allow movement of hydrophilic molecules across membrane b Two Types i Channel Protein ii Carrier Protein c Transport Proteins Highly speci c lV Channel Proteins a Aquaporins i Facilitate the passage of water b Ion Channels i Facilitate diffusion of ions ii Gated Channels Openclose in response to a stimulus c Transport Proteins i Promoteregulate passage of materials across membrane ii Carrier Proteins D bind to molecules ACTIVE TRAN SPO RT l Active Transport a Basics i Uses energy to move solutes AGAINST their concentration gradient ii Requires ATP iii Proteins Pumps iv Allows concentrations to be different from surroundings b Electrogenic Ion Pumps i Actively maintain cell membrane potential ii Cells have a voltage difference from their environment 50 to 70 mV iii Membrane potential voltage difference across a membrane iv Two combined forces quotelectrochemical gradientquot 1 Chemical Forces ions concentration gradient 2 Electrical Force effect of membrane potential on the ion movement v Electrogenic Pump l transport proteins that generate voltage across membrane 1 Sodium Potassium Pump l major in animal Cells 2 Proton pump main pump for plants fungi bacteria c Cotransport i When active transport of a solute indirectly drives transport of other substances d Bulk transport i Cross membrane in bulk via vesicles ii Requires energy iii Exocytosis iv Endocytosis 1 Cells takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane 2 Reversal of exocytosis 3 Three Types a Phagocytosis cellular eating b Pinocytosis cellular drinking c ReceptorMediated


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