World History II: Nationalism in the Middle East
World History II: Nationalism in the Middle East HIST 1020 -012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Nationalism in the Middle East I. Background A. Peoples and Religion: The Middle East is filled with people of various different ethnicities and religions. This makes the story of Middle Eastern nationalism pretty complicated. B. Foreign interest and intervention: The Middle East was controlled by various empires throughout history, the last being the Sunni controlled Ottoman Empire, which fell apart at the end of WWI. Western powers then stepped in and made the Middle Eastern states practically colonies. II. Trends Associated with Nationalism A. Modernization: goal of nationalism was to bring the state into the 20 century, to modern times. B. Revival of Islam: emphasis on getting back to Islamic life according to the Quran. C. Oil Wealth: oil was discovered in the Middle East, further motivating their nationalism. III. Turkey (the remainder of the Ottoman Empire) A. Mustafa Kamal (Ataturk): the father of modern Turkey. After WWI, Turkey is occupied by Western troops. Kamal is a nationalist who wants to rid Turkey of Western influence. B. Revolution: Kamal leads a revolution that overthrows the government that had been left over from the Ottoman Empire in 1922 and becomes Turkey’s first president. C. Kemalism – Westernization and secular state: Kemal thought modernization was the same as Westernization, and that the only way to rid Turkey of Western domination was to modernize. a. Abolish Caliph (leader of the Islamic community) thought they had too much power. b. Abolished Islamic law and polygamy, and replaced it with a Western type of law code. c. Suffrage: made universal, and by 1934 that included women d. Adopted the metric system, promoted education, and encouraged western style dress IV.Iran (Shi’ite community) A. Monarchy: From 1925 to 1941, Iran was ruled by Shah Reza Pahlavi, who ruled as an Emperor (practically a dictator). Wanted to modernize Iran by Western means as had begun by then in Turkey. Was very authoritarian and not popular with his own people. Eventually overthrown by western powers and replaced by his son, Muhammed Reza Pahlavi. B. Muhammed Reza Pahlavi as Shah: Still very much like his father, very authoritarian. a. Government Policies: allows in foreign investors, and makes them not subject to Iranian laws. Repressed his people (press, etc.) b. Relations with clergy: Muhammed was not very religious. Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the clergy, was very critical of the government. Many of his followers were killed, and he went into exile. Became a rallying point of the movement of people critical of the Shah. c. White Revolution (1960s) i. Land reform: gave land to peasants, but the amount of land given to each family was not enough to live off of. ii. Nationalized industry: drove entrepreneurs out of business. Filled Iran with big Western companies. Weren’t enough jobs. iii. Education was encouraged. iv. White Revolution turned out to be disastrous and highly unpopular. V. Iranian Revolution (197879) A. Beginnings – Repression and Mourning Processions: University students were protesting. January 8, 1978. Troops were sent in; 70 students were killed. Mourning processions were a traditional Shi’ite custom. Shah doesn’t like it, very public display about what he had done. Sent in more troops, killed more people, which brought on moor mourning processions. Eventually the Shah gave up and opted for exile. B. Return of Ayatollah Khomeini: (February 1979) assumes control of government and created a theocracy with no separation of church and state. C. Why? a. Foreign Influences in Iran: hated by people, encouraged by Shahs. b. Power of clergy and support of people: suppressed by Shah, blew up in his face. c. Failures of White Revolution: disaster, produced worse poverty, massively unpopular with the people. Nationalism in the Middle East, II I. Egypt: Nasser (leader of nationalism in Egypt) A. In 1952, he led an overthrow of the mandate system run by Britain and the king of Egypt who was still “in power”. Nasser leads new government. Very socialistic, gave land to the peasants. B. Suez War (1956): Suez Canal was built by British and French years before. Nasser nationalizes I, and Britain and France attack Egypt because of it. Israel also joins British and France, for its own reasons. U.S. sent money to Israel, U.S.S.R. sent money to Egypt. Ended as an Israeli victory. C. Nonalignment: Nasser’s policy. He didn’t want to be a puppet of U.S. or U.S.S.R., wanted to go his own course, but did take money and military aid from U.S.S.R. D. Technology: Nasser, like many nationalists, wanted to modernize his country, and chose to do it by adopting a lot of technology. Built a dam that would prevent the irregular, dangerous flooding of the Nile River. To do this, they moved massive historic monuments from Ancient Egypt so that they wouldn’t be destroyed by the new area of water. II. Israel A. Creation: Jewish peoples started developing a national identity known as Zionism. They wished for a Jewish homeland. Originally, they were from Palestine, but had been expelled almost 2000 years before and dispersed throughout the world. a. Balfour Declaration (1917): British say that they believe there should be a nation state created for the Jewish peoples. Jewish peoples, after WWI, started moving into Palestine, to the land that would become Israel, driven by AntiSemitism and the Holocaust. Made official by Western Powers in 1948. b. Palestinians: Original plan was for the land to be divided into areas for Israeli occupation and Arab occupation (West Bank and Gaza). Almost immediately, Arab peoples in nearby areas attacked to try to drive out the Israelis. Israelis win, demonstrating their tenacity and military skill, and taking the land originally dedicated to Palestinians, causing a Palestinian refugee crisis. The refugees mostly ended up in refugee camps in surrounding countries. These were meant to be temporary, but generations of people have lived in them. Many Palestinians still live in Israel, in West Bank and the Gaza strip. III. The Wars A. Egypt (1956): Suez War, see above. Egypt had been menacing Israeli borders, prompting Israeli involvement. B. Six Day War (1967): Egypt was massing troops on the Israeli border. In June 1967, Israel launched a preemptive strike. It ended in a huge victory for Israel. Expanded territory to 4 times its original size. Gained full control of the West Bank, Gaza, and Sinai Peninsula. C. Yom Kippur, October 1973: coincided with Jewish holy days and Muslim Ramadan. First days were not good for Israel as they were surprised, but they came back to win. IV.Peace Process: PLO formed by Yasser Arafat. It was an Arab political movement for Palestinian rights (particularly in Israel) that, for most of its early days, operated mostly as a terrorist organization. A. Camp David (1979): President Jimmy Carter encouraged talks between Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Mena Chem Begin (Israel), who were both more open to negotiations than their predecessors. Lead to Camp David agreements. Egypt recognized Israel’s existence as a country, and for 3 years they wouldn’t fight. B. Intifada (1987): An uprising of Palestinians against Israeli occupation. Involved civil disobedience, violence, etc. Demonstrates that life was miserable in Palestinian areas, and that the problem hadn’t been addressed in the peace negotiations. C. Oslo Agreements (1993): President Bill Clinton got Israel and PLO leader Yasser Arafat together for further peace talks. PLO recognized Israel, and Israel was to give governing power of predominantly Palestinian populated areas over to the PLO. Wouldn’t happen all at once, but slowly over a number of years. a. Things didn’t go as quickly as promised. The PLO had become more of a political party than a terrorist organization, so the Hamas split from them. b. Second Intifada (2000): Second uprising by Palestinians. Shows area is still contested
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