PSY2012 Week 11 of notes
PSY2012 Week 11 of notes PSY2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Psychology Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Mental Illness Psychopathology (mental illness): a disturbance in thoughts, emotions or behaviors that cause significant distress and/ or impairs functions o Can be broken down so we can not behave in ways that help us adapt o Causes significant stress and other negative emotions o Can get so intense that you can’t attend to hygiene or leave your house Failure Analysis approach: tries to understand MI by examining breakdowns in functioning o Anxiety interferes with the function it is supposed to help with Too much anxiety leads you to do worse on the exam Intro to Psychological Disorders Studies abnormal behavior Criteria that psychologists use to determine abnormal behavior/ psychologically disordered (Concept of Normality): o What is abnormal? Different from the norm (unusual) Statistically unusual based on the standard bell curve Ex: Hours of sleep: most people get 6-9 hours, but if someone gets 16 or 2, they are abnormal Just because something is rare, does not mean it is bad (Einstein) Every culture has different standards for normality! Most disorders are found cross-cultures, but the symptoms sometimes differ Not all disorders are uncommon o If the behavior leads to significant distress, it can be considered a disorder Mania: They don’t experience distress, but it is very impairing Some forms of distress and disability are the expected response to an event Grief over a loved one not considered a disorder Not all psychological disorders cause distress and not all distress implies a disorder o Impairment: interferes with one’s ability to get along in life Many ways that disorders an be impairing This is an important criterion Degree of impairment matters as well (grey area) Ex: intense fear of heights Impairing in a city, but not in a rural setting o Caveat/ exception: Everyone deviates, is distressed, or experiences impairment at times It’s a matter of degree, not either/or (yes/no) Think of it as a continuum between normal and abnormal Classifying Psychological Disorders Syndromes: Patterns of psychological symptoms o DSM: manual of how to classify diagnoses Been around since 1952 (We’re on the 5 version) Still being developed/ changed Groups disorders by category Very specific criteria checklist for how to determine disorders and make diagnoses and a set of decision rules for each condition Everyone who you are diagnosing must have 5 out of 9 symptoms to meet criteria Cautions phycologists to “think organic” Rule out physical causes of symptoms first Hypothyroidism causes some symptoms of depression Contains information about prevalence/ rarity Criticisms of the DSM Not all diagnoses meet criteria for validity o There are over 300 diagnoses and not all of them are super well researched o Even though it may not have significant research, people are hesitant to take it out Not all criteria and decisions rules are based on scientific data o Still a lot of things that need to be worked on High level of comorbidity o Multiple disorders occurring in one person o Usually, when you meet the criteria for one, you will have another o The distinct categories are more related than we think Reliance on categorical rather than dimensional model of psychopathology o Either you have the diagnosis or you don’t Vulnerable to political and social influences o Before a new version comes out, they will put out the proposed changes and groups will lobby for other things to be included/ not be included Categories of Disorders Anxiety Disorders o Exaggeration of threat o Results in Distressing, persistent anxiety Doesn’t include short-term (test) anxiety o May lead to Maladaptive, anxiety-reducing behaviors When you have so much anxiety, it can be impairing o Types of anxiety disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Defining feature o Excessive worry about situations that may not worry others o Continually tense and uneasy (over half of their day) Even in the absence of any specific anxiety-provoking stimulus o More general than phobias Panic Disorders Defining feature o Panic attacks Psychological component: intense fears Physiological component: Rapid heart rate, chest pain, difficulty breathing or swallowing, lightheadedness, sweating frightening symptoms that may feel like a heart attack o Worry about having future panic attacks o Changing personal behaviors to decrease likelihood of having an attack Some people will also receive a diagnosis of agoraphobia (fear of outside) o Comorbidity Phobias Different than a fear Intense fear of a particular animal, object or situation Sometimes these fears are adaptive (fear of poisonous snakes keeps you away from them) or maladaptive (fear of all snakes prevents you from vacationing in Florida) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Defining Features: o Exposed to a traumatic event and reacted with intense fear, helplessness or horror o Re-experiences trauma through Distressing recollections/ dreams Feelings of reliving trauma Intense distress/ physiological arousal when exposed to reminders Ex: Veterans hearing a helicopter Not always combat veterans Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Defining Features o Obsessions: recurrent and persistent distress- causing thoughts o Compulsions: Repetitive behaviors driven by the obsession o Very persistent and unwanted and will take up a significant part of their day Common type of obsessions o Contamination (dirt, germs, etc) o Repeated doubts o Need for symmetry, orderliness o Aggressive impulses o Sexual imagery o Many times, compulsions go along with obsessions Common types of compulsions o Cleaning, washing (when worried about germs) o Repeated checking (when having repeated doubts) o Arranging/ lining up objects (orderliness) o Counting, repeated words, constant praying (repeated thoughts) o Mood disorders Psychological disorders characterized by a lasting disturbance in mood When extreme moods occur for a lot time Extreme emotions Depression Mania Major Depressive Disorder Most common mood disorder Defining feature: o Severely depressed mood Major changes in sleep patterns, weight level and a loss in interest in pleasurable activities (anhedonia) Typically lasts for months in order to be diagnosed Bipolar Disorder Characterized as alternating between depression and mania Cycle through slower than people usually think o Mania for a week or two and depression for a little longer Depressive episode/ phase o Often indistinguishable from major depressive disorder o Can’t get enough sleep o Cloudy or no thoughts Manic episode/ phase o The opposite emotional extreme of depression o Euphoria, grandiose self-esteem and over- activity Do not require a lot of sleep Often hospitalized during this phase because of dangerous behavior Always moving and talking o Too many thoughts o Personality disorders Maladaptive patterns of behavior that have the ability to severely impact the way a person communicates and behaves in social situations
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