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1st upload

by: AJ Obinali

1st upload Biol 2120

AJ Obinali

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Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Obinali on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 04/15/16
Senses Review Questions 1. What is sensation? What are the steps involved in sensation? Means by which the brain perceives info from external or internal stimuli  2. How do the general senses differ from the special senses? Gen sense recs are distributed all over the body internal or external perception. Spec. Senses  are confined to specific organs in the body 3. Define the types of sensory receptors bases on the type of stimulus they are specialized to receive. Mechanoreceptors: physical movement of sensory cells Chemoreceptors: chemical molecules bind to receptor membranes  Thermoreceptors: sensory cells respond to temperature change Photoreceptors: respond to light Nociceptors: extreme chem, thermo, or mech stimuli creating pain  4. What are the 3 types of receptors based on location? Extero: skin Viscero: organs Proprioceptors: joints/tendons 5. Describe the sensory nerve endings in the skin. Where is each located? What type of  stimulation does each respond to? Free nerve endigs: painful stimuli, itch, proprioception Merkel discs: light touch and light pressure Hair follicle rec: movement of hair for sensory purposes Meissner corpuscles: two point discrimination; located in dermal papillae Ruffini end organ: detects stretch, continuous touch or pressure and depression of skin Pacinian corpuscle: deep cutaneous pressure, vibes, and proprio; hypodermis 6. What is the significance of proprioception? How do golgi tendon organs differ in their  function/response compared to muscle spindles? Info on muscle length 7. Differentiate between primary and secondary receptors. Primary receptor ­neurons creating AP in response to receptor potential Sec Recep ­reception of stimuli causing release of neuro transmitter to bind with another neuron to  cause receptor potential (like graded potential 8. What is accommodation? What is the difference between phasic and tonic  accommodation?  Desensitization from continued stimuli’ Phasic­ rapid accommodation Tonic­ slow accomodation 9. What are the special senses? Hearing, smell, sight, taste, equilibrium 10. Describe how the process of olfaction works (i.e. odorant binding to receptor). Odoant binds to receptor causing g protein to activate and begin dissociation of its subunits.  Subunit a binds to Adenylate cyclase and with use of ATP converts to cAMP which then  binds to gated ion chamber to open them allowing Na (maybe Ca) to depolarize the cells 11. Describe the neuronal pathways of olfaction. Bipolar olfac neurons pass thru cribriform plate to olfac bulb which then  12. What are the different types of papillae found on the tongue? What are their functions? Filiform­rough texture to manipulate food in motion Vallate –least numerous; has taste buds; least numerous but largerst Fungiform­mushroom shaped; most numerous 13. What are the taste types? Describe the actions of the major tastants. Salty­ immediate diffusion from open sodium channels Sour­ H+ ions diffuses through open channels; closes K+ channels; opens other LG channel  for + ion entry Sweet­ sugar bind to receptors causing g protein to subunit (a) to bind with adenylate cyclase  to convert ATP to cAMP which activates Kinase to close sodium channels Bitter­ bitter tastants bind to receptors causing g protein subunit to activate phospholipase C  to convert PIP2 to IP3 which causes the release of Ca from storages Glutamate­ glutamate molecule binds to receptor, g protein does cAMP, which opens Ca  channels for release 14. What are the neuronal pathways for taste? Chorda tympani (part of cn 7) 15. What is visible light? Wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum that is detectable by the human eye in the form  of colors 16. Differentiate between the sensory retina and the pigmented retina. 17. Differentiate between rods and cones. 18. Describe in detail signal transduction in the retina. 19. Describe the neuronal pathways of vision. 20. Differentiate between the external ear, middle ear, and inner ear. 21. Describe in detail the inner ear. How does it work? Include in your answer how sound  waves affect the cochlea. 22. Describe the neuronal pathways for hearing. 23. What is the vestibular system? Differentiate between the static labyrinth and the dynamic  labyrinth. V. system: Sensory system found in the inner ear to detect balance shifts. ­ static lab {using vestibules [saccule and utricle] found in the Macula evaluates head  position relative to gravity and linear acceleration by mechanical detection using hair  cells’ stereocilia to sense movement of contacted otoliths} ­ Dynamic lab{using cupula found in ampulla, fluid displacement in the canals bend cupula  at rates which are used to measure movement rate and judgement}  24. Describe the neuronal pathways for balance. 


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