Soc notes 4/11-4/15
Soc notes 4/11-4/15 Sociology 20213
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SOC 101 Whitaker - Intro to Sociology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Notetaker on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Hampton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
4/11/16 Explaining Stratiﬁcation Structural Functionalism: every social institution has a role to play for the health and maintenance of overall society, so even if one thing seems dysfunctional it is actually vital to society because it keeps to exist -ex: prostitution -they would argue that we have stratiﬁcation because the people at the lower classes can do any jobs (take out trash, bag groceries) medical doctors have a most important functional job -so we want the talented gifted people to work towards being a doctor -so we assign a higher level of ﬁnancial beneﬁts, prestige to these functional jobs -we don’t have a limited amount of people that can take out the trash Criticism of Davis-Moore Thesis Do reward actually reﬂect the contribution someone makes to society? -there is other jobs that are just as important jobs? teacher -veterans Davis and Moore ignore how the system of stratiﬁcation can prevent the development of individual talent Conﬂict Theory Stratiﬁcation rests on the unequal distribution of resources - some people have them and others don’t -conﬂict theory argues, those at the top or the “haves” continue to keep being “haves” because they can exploit those at the “don’t haves” levels Important resources include: money, land, jobs, information, education, health care, safety, etc. Key Contribution of Conﬂict Perspective Conﬂict perspective gives us something that the structural functionalist perspective doesn’t That is the acknowledgement of the interconnected roles that economics and political institutions play in creating and maintaining a stratiﬁed society Poverty in the US Social stratiﬁcation creates both “haves” and “have-nots” All systems of social inequality creates poverty, or at least relative poverty, one’ economic position compared to the living standard of the majority in a given society. Explains poverty Why, in such a prosperous country such as the US, is poverty such a permanent ﬁxture? The social “beneﬁts” of poverty -According to sociologist Herbert Gans (1971, 1996), within a free-market economy and competitive society such as the US. poverty plays a necessary institutional role. In fact, Gans has identiﬁed several economic and social “functions” served by poverty that beneﬁt all other classes in society -Some people in poverty will sign up for a military position as some way to have some societal mobility Culture of Poverty Thesis -Anthropologist Oscar Lewis (1968) concluded that the poor become trapped in a culture of poverty -poor people as a group posses beliefs, norms, values, and goals that are signiﬁcantly different from those of the rest of society and that perpetuate a particular lifestyle that keeps them poor Critics of this theory -in order for there to be a persistent culture of poverty in our society we must have a large group of permanently poor people But in reality people move in and out of poverty -this undermines the belief of a poverty-based lifestyle and call system that might exist. -As with poverty in general, welfare recipients move in and out of the system, making it difﬁcult to sustain a tradition of dependence across generations. -The behavior that seems to be characteristic of poor people is likely caused by institutional impediments. These include: (all are institutional level) -a tradition of racial or ethnic prejudice and discrimination -residentail segregation -limited economic opportunities -occupational obstacles against advancement 4/13/16 Discussion Question: Who doe the culture of poverty thesis protect? -The ideology protects the non poor -The larger social structure -The economic system from blame Poverty Rate - the percentage of residents whose income falls below the ofﬁcial poverty line — is the measure that the government uses to try to track success Race- category of individuals that are treated the same because of biological characteristics Since there is no universal deﬁnition of race, why do we as a society feel the need to put people in discrete racial categories? -government collects racial information -we wanna know if we have a majority population in a certain area, it could be problematic for society if we don’t have the right education systems to deal with the differences in those racial cultures -tracking information about health disparities -tracking info about economic inequalities 4/15/16 Racial and Ethnic Relations -The unequal distribution of resources if often motivated by racism -racism: the belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups so different in their social behavior and mental and physical capacities that they can be ranked as superior or inferior Latino Need to know that latino population is increasing -but it lags behind other racial ethno groups in terms of ﬁnancial (annual income) and educational standards -also were hit the hardest by the economic crisis -then blacks were hit the hardest next -latinos are more likely to drop out of school and less likely to go to college Black -unemployment is twice that of whites -only 48% of blacks own their own homes Asian Americans -college completion rate is higher than americans -average income (japanese and chinese americans) is higher than the population as a whole -they are not a model minority as some may think -when there was too many asian americans being admitted to the california schools, they implemented the language proﬁciency test for just asian americans Muslims -more than 3/4ths of the muslims in this country are citizens -portion of them who have gained a college degree the same as the general population -41% of muslims annual income report more than 50k -most say they do condemn islamic extremism For each group know: income educational gains ex racism how they compare as a whole Racism -can be expressed at 3 levels -Personal level - through individual attitudes and behaviors -Cultural level - in a language and collective ideologies -example: WHITE lie- not that bad, not signiﬁcant BLACK sheep- something you don’t want to be INDIAN giver -Macrostructural level - in the everyday workings of social institutions