Spanish American War
Spanish American War HIST 2340W
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Brazinsky in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see History of US Diplomacy in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
The SpanishAmericanCubanPhilippines War Prelude to War Cuban War of Independence 1 Growing American economic investment leads to closer ties with United States Cuba starts to become more dependent on US to become independent from Spain economically Cubans started to see fewer reasons for Spanish rule 2 Rise of Cuban nationalism due to developing middle class and anti Spanish sentiment People who used to be plantation owners moved to cities D growing urban middle class McKinley Strained relationship with Spain Valeriano Weyler Sent from Spain quotButcher Weylerquot Worsens the situation Dupuy De Lome Letter A letter written by Spanish foreign minister in Washington Calls McKinley weak and says that he won t go to war no matter what Letter is captured Press argues that quotAmerica39s national honor is being violatedquot Sinking of the Maine Maine had been sent to Cuba to protect American property Feb 15 1898 it sinks In 1976 an investigation said it failed due to an internal combustion But in 1898 they blamed the Spanish De Lome Letter Sinking of the Maine Popular Uproar by the American People Arouments for War Spain seen as barbaric Cisneros is imprisoned she is a Cuban revolutionary An American correspondent travels to Cuba to get her released Reinforces the image of Cuba as a damsel in distress The US as a moral obligation to rescue Cuba And people that oppose the war as seen as damaging American honor McKinley is portrayed as being too weak People think it39s because of business interest there which is damaging to McKinley McKinley at War Becomes a war for expansion Dewey Fights at Manila bay Spanish are dealt a signi cant defeat October December Cuba was declared independent Achieved because of Teller amendment US could not get Cuba this was legislation designed by the antiimperialists in the legislative branch in the US Puerto Rico and Philippines were ceded to the US This is new we had never acquired territories in such a way Now that these territories have been ceded what do you do with them How do you rule them Does this make America an Empire And if so how does it claim to be different from the empires you escaped from Platt Amendment Cuba would be independent But US has some rights US has the right to intervene in Cuban affair 5 Cuba cannot acquire foreign debt Because during the late 19th century many Latin American countries were falling into debt and falling under in uence of the European power Trade with Cuba increases Emilio Aguinaldo First president of the Philippines Right before the annexation he was elected Which would be invalidated by the annexation Violent war 0 Revolution was suppressed o Aguinaldo was imprisoned 120000 Americans fought 4000 killed 200000 Philippines died Nation Building in the Philippines Supervision of municipal government Educational reforms Educate 10 of students Economic development programs Nation Building Easier to protect American commerce with china ldea that America can transform other countries And can transform the peoples of Asia Primary Sources Albert Beverage Senator from Indiana The March of the Flag It is a noble land that God has given us a land that can feed and clothe the world a land whose coastlines would enclose half the countries of Europe a land set like a sentinel between the two imperial oceans of the globe a greater England with a nobler destiny It is a mighty people that He has planted on this soil a people sprung from the most masterful blood of history a people perpetually revitalized by the virile man producing working folk of all the earth a people imperial by virtue of their power by right of their institutions by authority of their Heavendirected purposesthe propagandists and not the misers of liberty It is a glorious history our God has bestowed upon His chosen people a history heroic with faith in our mission and our future a history of statesmen who ung the boundaries of the Republic out into unexplored lands and savage wilderness a history of soldiers who carried the ag across blazing deserts and through the ranks of hostile mountains even to the gates of sunset a history of a multiplying people who overran a continent in half a century a history of prophets who saw the consequences of evils inherited from the past and of martyrs who died to save us from them a history divinely logical in the process of whose tremendous reasoning we nd ourselves today Therefore in this campaign the question is larger than a party question It is an American question It is a world question Have we no mission to perform no duty to discharge to our fellow man Has God endowed us with gifts beyond our deserts and merely to rot in our own sel shness as men and nations must who take cowardice for their companion and self for their deityas China has as India has as Egypt has Shall we be as the man who had one talent and hid it or as he who had ten talents and used them until they grew to riches And shall we reap the reward that waits on our discharge of our high duty shall we occupy new markets for what our farmers raise our factories make our merchants sellaye new markets for what our ships shall carry Hawaii is ours Porto Rico is to be ours at the prayer of her people Cuba nally will be ours in the islands of the East even to the gates of Asia coaling stations are to be ours at the very least the ag of a liberal government is to oat over the Philippines and may it be the banner that Taylor unfurled in Texas and Fremont carried to the coast The Opposition tells us that we ought not to govern a people without their consent I answer the rule of liberty we govern the Indians without their consent we govern our territories without their consent we govern our children without their consent Would not the people of the Philippines prefer the just humane civilizing government of this Republic to the And regardless of this formula of words made only for enlightened selfgoverning people do we owe no duty to the world Shall we turn these peoples back to the reeking hands from which we have taken them Shall we abandon them with Germany England Japan hungering for them Shall we save them from those nations to give them a selfrule of tragedy They ask us how we shall govern these new possessions I answer Out of local conditions and the necessities of the case methods of government will grow If they can supervise protectorates so can America Why is it more dif cult to administer Hawaii than Nevis Mexico or California Both had a savage and an alien population both were more remote from the seat of government when they came under our dominion than the Philippines are today Will you say by your vote that American ability to govern has decayed that a century s experience in selfrule has failed of a result Will you af rm by your vote that you are an in del to American power and practical sense Or will you say that ours is the blood of government ours the heart of dominion ours the brain and genius of administration Will you remember that we do but what our fathers didwe but pitch the tents of liberty farther westward farther southwardwe only continue the march of the ag The march of the ag In 1789 the ag of the Republic waved over 4000000 souls in thirteen states and their savage territory which stretched to the Mississippi to Canada to the Florida s The timid minds of that day said that no new territory was needed and for the hour they were right ButJefferson through whose intellect the centuries marched Jefferson who dreamed of Cuba as an American state Jefferson the rst lmperialist of the RepublicJefferson acquired that imperial territory which swept from the Mississippi to the mountains from Texas to the British possessions and the march of the ag began The in dels to the gospel of liberty raved but the ag swept on The title to that noble land out of which Oregon Washington Idaho and Montana have been carved was uncertain Jefferson strict constructionist of constitutional power though he was obeyed the AngloSaxon impulse within him whose watchword is quotForwardquot another empire was added to the Republic and the march of the ag went on Those who deny the power of free institutions to expand urged every argument and more that we hear today but the people39s judgment approved the command of their blood and the march of the ag went on A screen of land from New Orleans to Florida shut us from the Gulf and over this and the Everglade Peninsula waved the saffron ag of Spain Andrew Jackson seized both the American people stood at his back and under Monroe the Florida s came under the dominion of the Republic and the march of the ag went on The Cassandras prophesied every prophecy of despair we hear today but the march of the ag went on Then Texas responded to the bugle calls of liberty and the march of the ag went on And at last we waged war with Mexico and the ag swept over the southwest over peerless California past the Gate of Gold to Oregon on the north and from ocean to ocean its folds of glory blazed And now obeying the same voice thatJefferson heard and obeyed thatJackson heard and obeyed that Monroe heard and obeyed that Seward heard and obeyed that Grant heard and obeyed that Harrison heard and obeyed our President today plants the ag over the islands of the seas outposts of commerce citadels of national security and the march of the ag goes on Distance and oceans are no arguments The fact that all the territory our fathers bought and seized is contiguous is no argument In 1819 Florida was farther from New York than Porto Rico is from Chicago today Texas farther from Washington in 1845 than Hawaii is from Boston in 1898 California more inaccessible in 1847 than the Philippines are now The ocean does not separate us from lands of our duty and desire the oceans join us rivers never to be dredged and canals never to be re paired Steam joins us electricity joins usthe very elements are in league with our destiny Cuba not contiguous Porto Rico not contiguous Hawaii and the Philippines no contiguous The oceans make them contiguous And our navy will make them contiguous But the Opposition is right there is a difference We did not need the western Mississippi Valley when we acquired it nor Florida Nor Texas nor California nor the royal provinces of the far northwest we had no emigrants to people this imperial wilderness no money to develop it even no highways to cover it No trade awaited us in its savage fastness s Our productions were not greater than our trade There was not one reason for the land lust of our statesmen from Jefferson to Grant other than the prophet and the Saxon within them But today we are raising more than we can consume making more than we can use Therefore we must nd new markets for our produce And so while we did not need the territory taken during the past can try at the time it was acquired we do need what we have taken ill 18981 and we need it now The resource39 and the commerce of the immensely rich dominions will be increased as much as American energy is greater than Spanish sloth In Cuba alone there are 15000000 acres of forest unacquainted with the ax exhaustless mines of iron priceless deposits of manganese millions 0f dollars39 worth of which we must buy today from the Black Sea districts There are millions of acres yet unexplored this relates back to the fact that the US was overproducing and the economy was not existent quotnot made with hands eternal in the heavensquot They sell hemp sugar cocoanuts fruits of the tropics timber of price like mahogany they buy our clothing tools implements machinery and all that we can raise and make Their trade will be ours in time Do you indorse that policy with your vote Cuba is as large as Pennsylvania and is the richest spot on the globe Hawaii is as large as NewJersey Porto Rico half as large as Hawaii the Philippines larger than all New England New York New Jersey and Delaware combined Together they are larger than the British Isles larger than France larger than Germany larger than Japan If any man tells you that trade depends on cheapness and not on government in uence ask him why England does not abandon South Africa Egypt and India Why does France seize South China Germany the vast region whose port is Kaou chou Our trade with Porto Rico Hawaii and the Philippines must be as free as between the states of the Union because they are American territory while every other nation on earth must party our tariff before they can compete with us Until Cuba shall ask for annexation our trade with her will at the very least be like the preferential trade of Canada with England That and the excellence of our goods and products that and the convenience of traf c that and the kinship of interests and destiny will give the monopoly of these markets to the American people The commercial supremacy of the Republic means that this Nation t is to be the sovereign factor in the peace of the world For the con icts of the future are to be con icts of tradestruggles for marketscommercial wars for existence And the golden rule of peace is impregnability of position and invincibility of preparedness So we see England the greatest strategist of history plant her ag and her cannon on Gibraltar at Quebec in the Bermuda s at Vancouver everywhere So Hawaii furnishes us a naval base in the heart of the Paci c the Ladrones another a voyage further on Manila another at the gates of Asia Asia to the trade of whose hundreds of millions American merchants manufacturers farmers have as good right as those of Germany or France or Russia or England Asia whose commerce with the United Kingdom alone amounts to hundreds of millions of dollars every year Asia to whom Germany looks to take her surplus products Asia whose doors must not be shut against American trade Within ve decades the bulk of Oriental commerce will be ours No wonder that in the shadows of coming events so great freesilver is already a memory The current of history has swept past that episode Men understand today the greatest commerce of the world must be conducted with the steadiest standard of value and most convenient medium of exchange human ingenuity can devise Time that unerring reasoned has settled the silver question The American people are tired of talking about moneythey want to make it There are so many real things to be donecanals to be dug railways to be laid forests to be felled cities to be builder elds to be tilled markets to be won ships to be launched peoples to be saved civilization to be proclaimed and the Rag of liberty Hung to the eager air of every sea Is this an hour to waste upon tri ers with nature39s laws It is a moment to realize the opportunities fate has opened to us And so is all hour for us to stand by the Government Wonderfully has God guided us Yonder at Bunker Hill and Yorktown His providence was above us At New Orleans and on ensanguined seas His hand sustained u Abraham Lincoln was His minister and His was the altar of freedom the Nation39s soldiers set up on a hundred battle elds His power directed Dewey in the East an delivered the Spanish eet into our hands as He delivered the elder Armada into the hands of our English sires two centuries ago Note actually in 1588 I We cannot y from our world duties it is ours to execute the purpose of a fate that has driven us to be greater than our small intentions We cannot retreat from any soil where Providence has unfurled our banner it is ours to save that soil for liberty and civilization Henry Cabot Lodge For Intervention in Cuba I UNITED WITH THE REST of the Committee on Foreign Relations with a single exception in reporting the concurrent resolution which is now before the Senate I will say however with perfect frankness that l for one should be very glad if the Senate should see t to go further in this direction for I believe that the time has come when the United States should use their good offices to bring to an end the deplorable condition of affairs which now exists in the island of Cuba in order to restore peace and give independence to the island which Spain can no longer hold I think there are very few matters which are of more immediate importance to the people of the United States than this not merely because their sympathies are engaged but also because in the condition of that island and in its future are involved large and most serious interests of the United States We know as a matter of fact that the whole of that island today except where the Spanish eets ride at anchor and where the Spanish armies are encamped is in the hands of the insurgents We know that they have formed a government that they have held two elections that every of cer in the Army holds his commission from the civil government which they have established We know the terms of the provisional government and in the presence of these facts and of the ghting that those men have done I think it is not unreasonable of them to ask some recognition at the hands of the people of the United States They have risen against oppression compared to which the oppression which led us to rebel against England is as dust in the balance and they feel that for this reason if no other they should have the sympathy of the people of the United States Martinez Campos the ablest general in Spain has been recalled because he failed to put down the insurrection recalled when the insurgent troops had been actually in the suburbs of Havana and in his place That is the actual condition of Cuba today speaking broadly and without reference to the details of actions or skirmishes Now Mr President the question arises and I think the time has come and more than come to decide it What are the duties of the United States in the presence of this war What action should we take in regard to a condition of affairs which lies right at our threshold We have heard a good deal in some of the recent debates of the ties of kindred of our gratitude to other nations with whom we happen to be in controversy and of how much consideration we should show for the nations of Europe in regard to matters where the interests of the United States are involved Whatever may be said as to our relations to some other countries I think the relations of this country to Spain offer no ties of gratitude or of blood If that for which the Spanish Empire has stood since the days of Charles V is right then everything for which the United States stands and has always stood is wrong If the principles that we stand for are right then the principles of which Spain has been the great exponent in history are utterly wrong We have the right to look at this thing purely from the point of view of the interests of humanity and the interests of the United States There are no ties no obligations no traditions to bind us Now turn to the other party in this con ict Turn to the Cubans battling for their liberties I think Mr President that even the most bitter opponent of the Spanish Americans would admit in all that makes for the progress of humanity over the government which Spain has given to that island Spain closed a Protestant chapel in the city of Matanzas The Cubans by their constitution guarantee a free church in a free state They guarantee liberty of conscience Our immediate pecuniary interests in the island are very great They are being destroyed it would mean an opportunity for American capital invited there by signal exemptions it would mean an opportunity for the development of that splendid island Cuba is but a quarter smaller than the island ofJava and the island ofJava sustains 23 million people Cuba has a population of 1500000 and she is one of the richest spots on the face of the earth She has not grown or prospered because the heavy hand of Spain has been upon her Those Mr President are some of the more material interests involved in this question but we have also a broader political interest in the fate of Cuba The great island lies there across the Gulf of Mexico She commands the Gulf she commands the channel through which all our coastwise traf c between the Gulf and our Northern and Eastern states passes She lies right athwart the line which leads to the Nicaragua Canal Cuba in our hands or in friendly hands in the hands of its own people attached to us by ties of interest and gratitude is a bulwark to the commerce to the safety and to the peace of the United States We should never suffer Cuba to pass from the hands of Spain to any other European power We may dismiss that aspect of the subject They may maintain a guerilla warfare for years They may wipe out every plantation and deluge the island in blood Spain may ruin the island She can never hold it or govern it again They have shown that they could ght well They are now ghting the battle of despair That is the condition today in that island And here we stand motionless a great and powerful country not six hours away from these scenes of useless bloodshed and destruction l have spoken of our material interests I have referred to our political interests in the future of Cuba But Mr President I am prepared to put our duty on a higher ground than either of those and that is the broad ground of a common humanity Of the sympathies of the American people generous libertyloving l have no question They are with the Cubans in their struggle for freedom I believe our people would welcome any action on the part of the United States to put an end to the terrible state of things existing there We can stop it We can stop it peacefully We can stop it in my judgment by pursuing a proper diplomacy and offering our good offices Let it once be understood that we mean to stop the horrible state of things in Cuba and it will be stopped The great power of the United States if it is once invoked and uplifted is capable of greater things than that Mr President we have a movement in favor of peace and arbitration recently set on foot by some distinguished and very wealthy and eminent citizens of the city of New York and other great cities of the country They are in uenced beyond any question by devotion to the divine principle of quotpeace on earth and goodwill to menquot I cannot suppose that for a moment they mean to con ne their opposition to war merely to wars in which we are engaged They must be opposed to all wars and they are I take it but an expression of the general feeling of the American people that the mission of the great republic is one of peace Therefore Mr President here is a war with terrible characteristics agrant at our very doors We have the power to bring it to an end I believe that the whole American people would welcome steps in that direction Recognition of belligerency as an expression of sympathy is all very well I think it is fully justi ed by the facts in Cuba but I should like to see some more positive action taken than that I think we cannot escape the responsibility which is so near to us We cannot shrug our shoulders and pass by on the other side If that war goes on in Cuba with the added horrors which this new general brings with him the responsibility is on us we cannot escape it We should exert every in uence of the United States Standing as I believe the United States stands for humanity and civilization we should exercise every in uence of our great country to put a stop to that war which is now raging in Cuba and give to that island once more peace liberty and independence Lodge believes we can 1 democratize Cuba and 2 open a new market to counteract the surplus of goods Cuba was seen as a damsel in distress Needed to be rescued by the chivalrous United States William Jennings Bryan Two Speeches on Cuba quotWhen men are excited they talk about what they can do when they are calm they talk about what they ought to doquot Some say that if America is as great as Germany and England shouldn39t it too govern colonies The real question WjB says is whether we can in one hemisphere develop the theory that governments derive their just power from the consent of the governed and at the same time inaugurate support and defend in the other hemisphere a government which derives its authority entirely form superior force quotTo defend forcible annexation on the ground that we are carrying out a religious duty is worse than absurdquot l the meek will inherit the earth the imperialists are certainly not week he doesn39t buy the religious argument but does disprove it with religion quotWe entered the Spanish war as peacemakersquot quotTo buy land is one thing to buy people is anotherquot quotIf we enter upon a colonial policy we must expect to hear the command quotsilencequot If a member of congress attempts to criticize any injustice perpetrated by a government official against a helpless people he will be warned to keep silent lest his critics encourage resistance to American authority in the orientquot quotWe cannot afford to destroy the constitutionquot quotThe desire to be free will be stronger than the desire to enjoy a mere physical existencequot quotThose that call themselves expansionist are really imperialistsquot quotThe democratic party stands for the government of the constitution nowquot He views Philippines as in their own evolution of government Like how Beverage sees the Cubans hopes of their democracy People with de ciencies but potential
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