Isolationism to Expansion
Isolationism to Expansion HIST 2340W
Popular in History of US Diplomacy
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Foreign Policy before 1865 The Great Dilemma Americans believed it was their mission and destiny to transform the globe But they lacked the power to do so Weak economy Weak military Nation Building at Home 0 lsolationism prevent European in uences from corrupting America s democratic experiment 0 Territorial expansion The more territory the US the less the Europeans had 0 Keep the European power out of the Americas 0 Right to a natural commerce War of 1812 Successful with territory Unsuccessful with maintaining neutral commerce 1803 war broke out in Europe French and British Neither wanted the US to trade with the other So they both blocked the US trade But US relied more on Britain so this was problematic in remaining neutral Britain continued to block them US continued to insist on its right to neutral trade 1806 Embargo Act Reduce American trade with all combatants 1812 America declares war with Britain on all these issues Triumph of Andrew Jackson in New Orleans But the US did not have the resources to ght a major European power Burning of the capitol and new sense of vulnerability Nation must be more vigilant about its defense Need for national unity Chapter 4 Notes 1821 John Quincy Adams and British Minister Stratford Canning met to discuss the British claims on Oregon country JQ Adams was Secretary of State at the time Americans after the War of 1812 became even more assertive Challenged the European commercial system and sought to break down trade barriers Manifest Destiny also seems to be a prevailing theme 1800 1878 the land Europe claimed almost doubled in size Ex Canada and its vulnerability Just to put this into European context Napoleonic wars were right before the 1821 discussion Napoleon took control of Spain and Portugal in 1808 By 1840 much of the territory extending to the Mississippi River had been settles 13 states became 26 Doubling population growth 18201840 the US economy began to mature Building of infrastructure such as highways While the we prided itself on its political isolation from Europe it was dependent upon them economically Ex US agriculture had high production but not enough demand in the States alone War of 1812 boosted nationalism Statecraft was high the Virginia Dynasty ending with Monroe all had a wealth of practical experience John Quincy Adams is seen as the most successful diplomat of his time Had six languages under his belt Created a ling system in the State Dept that would be used until 1915 Strong believer in free trade Disliked Jefferson39s quotpell mell protocolquot and reverted back to formal practice with envoys and dress Almost doubled the number of consultants between 1820 1830 Also maintained a sizeable navy eet Whereas Jefferson was fearful of the navy JQ Adams was president from 1825 1829 Monroe and Adams also pushed to secure payment of claims from the spoliation of American commerce So that it would lead to endorsement of the US position on free trade and neutral rights Most claims were arising from privateering and other alleged violations of neutral rights by governments or rebels or in disputes between governments during the wars of independence there was a Brazilian blockade of US ships of the Rio de la Plata Reciprocity was designed to strengthen the hands of US diplomats in negotiations The MonroeAdams trade offensive produced little results Issue with the French didn39t want to pay claims on the basis that they had paid enough in the American Revolution plus they didn39t want anyone else paying American claims lasted until the Jackson presidency Some successes secure reciprocity with Brain and a favored nation treaty with Russia in 1824 UnderJohn Adams southern voters blocked trade with Haiti It was even more dif cult to trade with Latin American nations US was unable to open trade to the British West Indies Louisiana Purchase Madison was secretary of state at the time Expand American territory Pressure put on France France had Haitian slaves producing sugar and Louisiana was producing the Haitian foods So Madison sent secret aid to Haiti lf France lost Haiti he hoped they wouldn39t want Louisiana Which is true Removed Europeans from western frontier Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase were hotly debated with Spain since its inceonn Florida Britain invaded West Florida in the War of 1812 They could have incited a slave revolt Florida quotlike a pistol pointed at the nation39s heartquot Spain was weakened by the Napoleonic wars it seemed like now was the time to conquer that territory And it wanted to get rid of Spain since it couldn39t control it but it didn39t want to lose Texas or California 1819 Adams Ones Treaty Concern that European powers would take advantage of Spain39s decline Problem in Florida 18171819 they are worried about Florida Andrew Jackson campaign against Seminole Indians Spanish negotiator Don Luis de Ones Proposed settling the western boundary of the US at the Mississippi Also asked the US not to recognize the new Latin American republics Monroe and Adams insisted on a line following the Colorado River And they were willing to delay Latin American recognition But they could not publically be against eh new republics as they hoped to trade with them 9 So the US puts pressure on Madrid 0 Florida39s become volatile noman39sland Pirates and renegades in the area Also the Creek people ed there after the 1814 Treaty at Fort Jackson 9 Monroe administration mounted military expeditions to quell the violence 0 To be used as leverage later with Spain 0 Jackson was sent to quotpacify the Seminolesquot Jackson just wanted to seize the state in 60 days Tried two British subectsbefore an American military court on Spanish territory example of frontierjustice in action 9 Monroe and Adams explode the Jackson situation and they took aims that they would peacefully retreat in exchange theta Spain struck a deal quickly 9 Settlement reached in Feb 1819 0 Let go of Texas asked for Spanish settlement in the Paci c Northwest 0 They also got Florida The lands in the Paci c Northwest that Monroe and Adams asked for from the Spanish were also claimed by the British and Russians Started to make peace with the British to do this Rush Bug agreement of 1817 rearmament on the Great Lakes Established a Canadian border Adams also established the alternate the diplomatic policy that the nation39s names would be alternated in order in treaties and such In 1818 the AngloAmerican convention decided to leave the Oregon territory open for 10 years Secretary of War John C Calhoun in 1817 drew up plans to put forth in that area It was Russia39s challenge in the Northwest and the threat of European intervention to restore monarchial governments in Latin America and the revolution in Greece that brought forth the Monroe Doctrine in December of 1823 Sent in a trade company to establish settlement Faced American competition that was conveniently arming the local residents and giving them whiskey because who wouldn39t want whiskey Technically this didn39t poste a great threat because the US had not claimed land over the 42nCI parallel Russia was at 55 Greek Revolution Spring of 1821 They were revolting against Turkish rule They inside on an quotAmericanstyle declaration of independence and appealed to the world for assistancequot Speci cally called upon the Founding Fathers lssue divided the US government Adams dismissed the Greek infatuation as quotall sentiment Didn39t want to hamper negotiations with Turkey remember that trade and expansion were his focus didn39t want to hurt trade relations even with TUrkey Meanwhile the minister to France Gallatin urged employment of the Navy against the Turks Joined by former president Madison Clay and Daniel Webster too The Greek Revolution was under discussion when threat of European intervention of the Latin American nations came into play Latin American Republics After the Napoleonic Wars Tsar Alexander had taken the lead in mobilizing the Continental powers in checking revolutions At the Congress of Vienna in 1822 November he secured an allied commitment to restore the fallen monarchy in Spain French rebuilt the throne on the continent but now Europeans were discussing restoring the Latin American counterparts Triggered ashbacks in the US of foreign intervention in their own affairs early on in the revolution and a little while after George Canning brought the issue of European lnvasion to the oor He was British Talking to Richard Rush minister to Britain in the summer of 182 Wanted a joint statement against European intervention Known as quotCanning39s irtationquot Jefferson and Madison said to take the offer Adams said no They would lose all hope of getting Cuba or Texas European invasion was inevitable Wanted to quotavow the democratic principlesquot might have only said this because he was a presidential hopeful Monroe Doctrine in December 1823 Did it apply equally to North and South America How was the US to protect Latin American independence Europe went from hostility to shock at the precocious statement by a relatively weak country Offended Metternich for Austria Canning had been out maneuvered and issued a statement encouraged by the French saying it was all actually Britain s idea Many Latin Americans believed that it was Britain who headed off the intervention The Monroe Doctrine really re ected the idea of Manifest Destiny held by Adams Monroe and Clay and was a more accurate representation of the US39s ambitions in the Paci c Northwest Russia did end up opening some of its ports and being less competitive with their company because they would respect the AmericanRussian split Adams wins the White House in 1824 very tough election he was chosen by the House of Representatives Adams sent Gallatin to London To extend the Canadian boundary to the 49th parallel 1827 No outcome so both Britain and America decide the leave the territory open Second Great Awakening in the 18205 The need to spread American ideology was pushed by religion more than anything Although the cross country journey of Marquis de Lafayette incited patriotic fervor and reminded people of the revolution as the 50th anniversary approached Millennials at this time too thought the rapture was to happen in 1866 Lots of mission trips Not sponsored by the government but individually coordinated with the British Major thrust in the Middle East avor of a crusade Maelstrom of politics and religion Missions became a part of the foreign policy Adams quotthe US should be the wellwisher to the freedom and indepdence of all the champion and vindicator only of her ownquot 1821 l but as president this didn39t always hold true Clay was Adams39 Secretary of State Together they decided it would be best to reshape Latin American countries in a North American image Often crossed the line between encouraging change and interfering in domestic politics of another country I am so glad we solved that issue so much sarcasm Ex Raquel publicly was against the Brazilian government Ex US got involved in a Chilean debate over policies Ex Simon Bolivar Seen as a hero to the North American people But the government didn39t like his stance on quotpresidency for lifequot Also feared British involvement or at the least a potential shift 0 monarchy for the Columbia and Bolivia region The US delegation to Columbia led by William Henry Harrison called Bolivar a madman and actively worked with his enemies l Harrison was asked to leave Clay wanted to recognize Haiti but once again southerners blocked it like Calhoun who believed it to be a risk with quotsocial relationsquot didn39t want a black diplomat essentially Panama conference Adams and Clay wanted to promote closer relations with hemispheric neighbors Bolivar wanted an interAmerican congress to fend off European intervention And perhaps support his own ambitions for hemispheric leadership Clay wanted to build upon his vision of the American System Drew in bitter attacks from Presidential Hopefuls such as Crawford Calhoun and especially Andrew Jackson Southerners protested association with nations whose economies were competitive And were worried that the congress was going to abolish slavery And once again didn39t want to be associated with Haitian diplomats So US participation never materialized 0 Also because the hostile Senate would not con rm the delegates of Adams to the conference 0 And then those that were con rmed were latecouldn t go one died and the senate didn39t reconvene to go over new representation 1828 Election of Andrew Jackson Cabinet met sparingly and rarely discussed foreign policy Although he instituted the rst major reform of the State Department Created 8 bureau39s and elevated the chief clear to a status roughly equivalent to an undersecretary Introduced the idea of rotation in of ce A spoils system quotJackson39s Kitchen Cabinetquot McLane Marin Van Buren William Cabell Rivers and James Buchanan were the only good diplomats everyone else was weak and only in because of spoils system Got rid of formal dress for diplomats Domestic struggles such as the nulli cation controversy Jackson39s changes were more of style and method than substance Extracted 2 million from Naples But almost undid his success by pressing too hard for payment From places like France Tried to seize French property they withdrew their minister from Washington Issued a nonapology that France accepted 1827 Canning died Jackson got access to the British West Indies US also managed to get a treaty with Turkey that had eluded them from 30 years in 1827 quotSeparate and secret promisequot for the us to assist Turkey in rebuilding its Navy Jackson eagerly sought trade with Asia 1832 He appointed Edmund Roberts to Muscat Siam Thailand and Cochin China Vietnam They did not get along The Vietnamese considered the president inferior to the king because he was elected Because of lack of diving mandate And restrictions on power Month of unproductive discussions But was able to get treaties with Muscat and Siam Then died of cholera Jackson also wanted to explore the South Pole Falkland Islands Americans had shed there for years In the early 18205 Buenos Aires laid claim to the islands Established a colony of exconvicts In 1831 sailors violated orders not to be there Ships were seed The USS Lexington The General neutralized Argentine defense declared the islands with government placed the settlers under arrest and took several hostages 0 Jackson ended up endorsing this despite it not being what he ordered Pepper Coast 1831 Along the coast of present day Indonesia Malayan pirates attacked an American merchantman on the ship Friendship actual name of the ship I couldn39t make this up if I tried Killed several sailors quotWho is greater now Malay or Americaquot Jackson deployed the fty gun USS Potomac to the East Indies under Capt John Downs To demand indemnity and restitution of stolen property Foreign policy of the 18305 Nation s contempt for quotlesserquot peoples Its determination to demand respect Conviction that military force could be used to alter the behavior of others Further attacks along the Pepper Coast proved that Downs wasn39t truly successful Jackson and Native Americans Calhoun quotIndians are in fact nor ought to be considered as intendant nationsquot 1818 Ironically the main targets of removal the quotFive Civilized Tribesquot had done the most to assimilate Jackson concluded that it was impossible for separate peoples to exist in the same place This was his way to quotsave the Indians from annihilationquot 1830 Congress passed a thin margin bill for removal and it was in theory voluntary Jackson said that the would not remove Indians that conformed to state law State officials ignored this When the Cherokee and Creeks sued the US his response was to keep the tribes quotto their fate and annihilationquot 46000 Native Americans were forced across the Mississippi Cherokees resisted the longest so they were put in camps Jackson also tried to push back the frontiers of Mexico Butler diplomatic mission was a low point ofJackson39s diplomacy Butler was to get Texas quotby means fair or foulquot Butler misread negotiations Urged Jackson to occupy parts of Texas which Jackson rejected lnstead Butler wanted an encoded communication of bribery Jackson was even taken aback at this Revolution among Americans in Texas April 1836 Battle of San Jacinto Asked for recognition and annexation Jackson demurred Afraid about the conversation over extra slave territory which was splitting the democratic base at that time Mach 1837 Jackson in one of his nal acts recognized the Republic of Texas Left annexation for another day Primary Sources Federalist Papers 10 To the People of the State of New York Madison A Republic government is superior to a democratic government More factions is good With more representation and more people A union can break and control the violence of faction The instability injustice and confusion introduced into the public councils have in truth been the mortal diseases under which popular government everywhere have penshed Complaints of the confederation system include That our government are too unstable That the public good is disregarded in the con icts of rival parties That measures are often decided not by rules and justice but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority Problem faction Liberty encourages factions But we need liberty Liberty is to faction as air is to ame too much ame is bad but we cannot get rid of air 9 Unwise Problem man s reasoning is fallible His opinions and his passions will have a reciprocal in uence on each other But we need to have a government that protects all these faculties It39s his private property the latent cause of faction are thus sown in the nature of man And man is very likely to fall into mutual animosities with one another But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property Everyone looks out for their own interest 9 So a body of man cannot be their own judges It is vain to say that enlightened statement will be able to adjust these clashing interest and render them all subservient to the public good 9 The causes of factions cannot be removed and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects The majority having such cohesitant passion or interest must be rendered by third number and local situation unable to concert and carry into effect schemes of oppression A republic promises the care for which we are seeking quotUnder such a regulation it may well happen that the public voice pronounced by the representatives of the people will be more consonant to the public good than if pronounced by the people themselves convened for the purposequot Because men are voted in only men who possess the most attractive merit will be given power The federal constitution forms a happy combination in this respect the great and aggregate interest being referred to the national the local and particular to the state legislatures The larger the republic the more opinions and factions which is good quotA religious sect may degenerate into a political faction in a part of the Confederacy but the variety of sects dispersed over the entire face of it must secure the national Councils against any danger from that sourcequot George Washington s Farewell Address The more you have foreign in uence The more that voice will in uence the people and incite opposing opinions and create new factions Also if you are trying to expand an alliance will not allow you to do so it will distract you from the task plus they won t want you to expand We are already weak at this time easily abused by an alliance our political system could be threatened Neutrality as a means of power and of strength Neutral commerce Engage in markets with democracies monarchies totalitarian dictatorships doesn39t matter The US needs to become a commercial power Friends and Citizens The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust it appears to me proper especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made I beg you at the same time to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country and that in withdrawing the tender of service which silence in my situation might imply I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both The acceptance of and continuance hitherto in the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn The strength of my inclination to do this previous to the last election had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence impelled me to abandon the idea and am persuaded whatever partiality may be retained for my services that in the present circumstances of our country you will not disapprove my determination to retire The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion In the discharge of this trust I will only say that l have with good intentions contributed towards the organization and administration of the government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications experience in my own eyes perhaps still more in the eyes of others has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services they were temporary l have the consolation to believe that while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene patriotism does not forbid it In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me and for the opportunities l have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment by services faithful and persevering though in usefulness unequal to my zeal lf benefits have resulted to our country from these services let it always be remembered to your praise and as an instructive example in our annals that under circumstances in which the passions agitated in every direction were liable to mislead amidst appearances sometimes dubious vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected Profoundly penetrated with this idea I shall carry it with me to my grave as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual that the free Constitution which is the work of your hands may be sacredly maintained that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue that in fine the happiness of the people of these States under the auspices of liberty may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause the affection and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it Here perhaps I ought to stop But a solicitude for your welfare which cannot end but with my life and the apprehension of danger natural to that solicitude urge me on an occasion like the present to offer to your solemn contemplation and to recommend to your frequent review some sentiments which are the result of much reflection of no inconsiderable observation and which appear to me all important to the permanency of your felicity as a people These will be offered to you with the more freedom as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel Nor can I forget as an encouragement to it your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasnon Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment the support of your tranquility at home your peace abroad of your safety of your prosperity of that very liberty which you so highly prize But as it is easy to foresee that from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively though often covertly and insidiously directed it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness that you should cherish a cordial habitual and immovable attachment to it accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest With slight shades of difference you have the same religion manners habits and political principles You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels and joint efforts of common dangers sufferings and successes But these considerations however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole The North in an unrestrained intercourse with the South protected by the equal laws of a common government finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industry The South in the same intercourse benefiting by the agency of the North sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North it finds its particular navigation invigorated and while it contributes in different ways to nourish and increase the general mass of the national navigation it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength to which itself is unequally adapted The East in a like intercourse with the West already finds and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad or manufactures at home The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort and what is perhaps of still greater consequence it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight influence and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage whether derived from its own separate strength or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power must be intrinsically precarious While then every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in union all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength greater resource proportionally greater security from external danger a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations and what is of inestimable value they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce but which opposite foreign alliances attachments and intrigues would stimulate and embitter Hence likewise they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which under any form of government are inauspicious to liberty and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions will afford a happy issue to the experiment It is well worth a fair and full experiment With such powerful and obvious motives to union affecting all parts of our country while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands ln contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburning which spring from these misrepresentations they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head they have seen in the negotiation by the Executive and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate of the treaty with Spain and in the universal satisfaction at that event throughout the United States a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties that with Great Britain and that with Spain which secure to them everything they could desire in respect to our foreign relations towards confirming their prosperity Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers if such there are who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens To the efficacy and permanency of your Union a government for the whole is indispensable No alliance however strict between the parts can be an adequate substitute they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced Sensible of this momentous truth you have improved upon your first essay by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union and for the efficacious management of your common concerns This government the offspring of our own choice uninfluenced and unawed adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation completely free in its principles in the distribution of its powers uniting security with energy and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment has a just claim to your confidence and your support Respect for its authority compliance with its laws acquiescence in its measures are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government But the Constitution which at any time exists till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people is sacredly obligatory upon all The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government They serve to organize faction to give it an artificial and extraordinary force to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community and according to the alternate triumphs of different parties to make the public administration the mirror of the ill concerted and incongruous projects of faction rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests they are likely in the course of time and things to become potent engines by which cunning ambitious destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion Towards the preservation of your government and the permanency of your present happy state it is requisite not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles however specious the pretexts One method of assault may be to effect in the forms of the Constitution alterations which will impair the energy of the system and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown In all the changes to which you may be invited remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true character of governments as of other human institutions that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country that facility in changes upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion exposes to perpetual change from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion and remember especially that for the efficient management of your common interests in a country so extensive as ours a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable Liberty itself will find in such a government with powers properly distributed and adjusted its surest guardian It is indeed little else than a name where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property Let me now take a more comprehensive view and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally This spirit unfortunately is inseparable from our nature having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind It exists under different shapes in all governments more or less stifled controlled or repressed but in those of the popular form it is seen in its greatest rankness and is truly their worst enemy The alternate domination of one faction over another sharpened by the spirit of revenge natural to party dissension which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities is itself a frightful despotism But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction more able or more fortunate than his competitors turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation on the ruins of public liberty Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration It agitates the community with ill founded jealousies and false alarms kindles the animosity of one part against another and foments occasionally riot and insurrection It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another From their natural tendency it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose And there being constant danger of excess the effort ought to be by force of public opinion to mitigate and assuage it A fire not to be quenched it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame lest instead of warming it should consume It is important likewise that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one and thus to create whatever the form of government a real despotism A just estimate of that love of power and proneness to abuse it which predominates in the human heart is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power by dividing and distributing it into different depositaries and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern some of them in our country and under our own eyes To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them If in the opinion of the people the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates But let there be no change by usurpation for though this in one instance may be the instrument of good it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit which the use can at any time yield Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity religion and morality are indispensable supports ln vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens The mere politician equally with the pious man ought to respect and to cherish them A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity Let it simply be asked Where is the security for property for reputation for life if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government The rule indeed extends with more or less force to every species of free government Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric ln proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion it is essential that As a very important source of strength and security avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt not only by shunning occasions of expense but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives but it is necessary that public opinion should cooperate To facilitate to them the performance of their duty it is essential that you should practically bear in mind that towards the payment of debts there must be revenue that to have revenue there must be taxes that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant that the intrinsic embarrassment inseparable from the selection of the proper objects which is always a choice of difficulties ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue which the public exigencies may at any time dictate Observe good faith and justice towards all nations cultivate peace and harmony with all Religion and morality enjoin this conduct and can it be that good policy does not equally enjoin it It will be worthy of a free enlightened and at no distant period a great nation to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence Who can doubt that in the course of time and things the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue The experiment at least is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature Alas Is it rendered impossible by its vices In the execution of such a plan nothing is more essential than that permanent inveterate antipathies against particular nations and passionate attachments for others should be excluded and that in place of them just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage and to be haughty and intractable when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur Hence frequent collisions obstinate envenomed and bloody contests The nation prompted by illwill and resentment sometimes impels to war the government contrary to the best calculations of policy The government sometimes participates in the national propensity and adopts through passion what reason would reject at other times it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride ambition and other sinister and pernicious motives The peace often sometimes perhaps the liberty of nations has been the victim betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification It leads also to concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained and by exciting jealousy illwill and a disposition to retaliate in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld And it gives to ambitious corrupted or deluded citizens who devote themselves to the favorite nation facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country without odium sometimes even with popularity gilding with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation a commendable deference for public opinion or a laudable zeal for public good the base or foolish compliances of ambition corruption or infatuation As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions to practice the arts of seduction to mislead public opinion to influence or awe the public councils Such an attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence l conjure you to believe me fellow citizens the But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided instead of a defense against it Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people to surrender their interests So far as we have already formed engagements let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith Here let us stop Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns Hence therefore it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course If we remain one people under an efficient government the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected when belligerent nations under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation when we may choose peace or war as our interest guided by justice shall counsel Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground Why by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition rival ship interest humor or caprice It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world so far I mean as we are now at liberty to do it for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs that honesty is always the best policy I repeat it therefore let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense But in my opinion it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them nor granting exclusive favors or preferences consulting the natural course of things diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce but forcing nothing establishing with powers so disposed in order to give trade a stable course to define the rights of our merchants and to enable the government to support them conventional rules of intercourse the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit but temporary and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied as experience and circumstances shall dictate constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character that by such acceptance it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation It is an illusion which experience must cure which a just pride ought to discard In offering to you my countrymen these counsels of an old and affectionate friend I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish that they will control the usual current of the passions or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations But if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit some occasional good that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare by which they have been dictated How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated the public records and other evidences of my conduct must witness to you and to the world To myself the assurance of my own conscience is that l have at least believed myself to be guided by them In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe my proclamation of the twenty second of April I793 is the index of my plan Sanctioned by your approving voice and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress the spirit of that measure has continually governed me uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it After deliberate examination with the aid of the best lights I could obtain l was well satisfied that our country under all the circumstances of the case had a right to take and was bound in duty and interest to take a neutral position Having taken it determined as far as should depend upon me to maintain it with moderation perseverance and firmness The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct it is not necessary on this occasion to detail I will only observe that according to my understanding of the matter that right so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers has been virtually admitted by all The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred without anything more from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation in cases in which it is free to act to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience With me a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it humanly speaking the command of its own fortunes Though in reviewing the incidents of my administration I am unconscious of intentional error I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors Whatever they may be I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence and that after forty five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest Relying on in this as in other things and actuated by that fervent love towards it which is so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize without alloy the sweet enjoyment of partaking in the midst of my fellowcitizens the benign influence of good laws under a free government the everfavorite object of my heart and the happy reward as I trust of our mutual cares labors and dangers Manifest Destiny The American people having derived their origin from many other nations and the Declaration of National Independence being entirely based on the great principle of human equality these facts demonstrate at once our disconnected position as regards any other nation that we have in reality but little connection with the past history of any of them and still less with all antiquity its glories or its crimes On the contrary our national birth was the beginning of a new history the formation and progress of an untried political system and so far as regards the entire development of the natural rights of man in moral political and national life we may con dently assume that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity It is so destined because the principle upon which a nation is organized xes its destiny and that of equality is perfect is universal lt presides in all the operations of the physical world and it is also the conscious law of the soul the selfevident dictates of morality which accurately de nes the duty of man to man and consequently man39s rights as man Besides the truthful annals of any nation furnish abundant evidence that its happiness its greatness its duration were always proportionate to the democratic equality in its system of government What philanthropist can contemplate the oppressions the cruelties and injustice in icted by them on the masses of mankind and not turn with moral horror from the retrospect America is destined for better deeds It is our unparalleled glory that we have no reminiscences of battle elds but in defense of humanity of the oppressed of all nations of the rights of conscience the rights of personal enfranchisement where men were led on by hundreds of thousands to slay one another dupes and victims to emperors kings nobles demons in the human form called heroes We have had patriots to defend our homes our liberties but no aspirants to crowns or thrones nor have the American people ever suffered themselves to be led on by wicked ambition to depopulate the land to spread desolation far and wide that a human being might be placed on a seat of supremacy We have no interest in the scenes of antiquity only as lessons of avoidance of nearly all their examples The expansive future is our arena and for our history We are entering on its untrodden space with the truths of God in our minds bene cent objects in our hearts and with a clear conscience unsullied by the past We are the nation of human progress and who will what can set limits to our onward march Providence is with us and no earthly power can We point to the everlasting truth on the rst page of our national declaration and we proclaim to the millions of other lands that quotthe gates of hellquot the powers of aristocracy and monarchy quotshall not prevail against itquot The farreaching the boundless future will be the era of American greatness In its magni cent domain of space and time the nation of many nations is destined to manifest to mankind the excellence of divine principles to establish on earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the worship of the Most High the Sacred and the True Its oor shall be a hemisphere its roof the rmament of the starstudded heavens and its congregation and Union of many Republics comprising hundreds of happy millions caIIing owning no man master but governed by God39s natural and moral law of equality the law of brotherhood of quotpeace and good will amongst menquot Equality of rights is the cynosure of our union of States the grand exemplar of the correlative equality of individuals and while truth sheds its effulgence we cannot retrograde without dissolving the one and subverting the other We must onward to the ful lment of our mission to the entire development of the principle of our organization freedom of conscience freedom of person freedom of trade and business pursuits universality of freedom and equality This is our high destiny and in nature39s eternal inevitable decree of cause and effect we must accomplish it All this will be our future history to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man the immutable truth and bene cence of God For this blessed mission to the nations of the world which are shut out from the lifegiving light of truth has America been chosen and her high example shall smite unto death the tyranny of kings hierarchs and oligarchs and carry the glad tidings of peace and good M where myriads now endure an existence scarcely more enviable than that of beasts of the eld Who then can doubt that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity The Monroe Doctrine refer to the Great Dilemma At the proposal of the Russian Imperial Government made through the minister of the Emperor residing here a full power and instructions have been transmitted to the Minister of the United States at St Petersburg to arrange by amicable negotiation the respective rights and interests of the two nations on the northwest coast of this continent A similar proposal has been made by His Imperial Majesty to the Government of Great Britain which has likewise been acceded to The Government of the United States has been desirous by this friendly proceeding of manifesting the great value which they have invariably attached to the friendship of the Emperor and their solicitude to cultivate the best understanding with his Government In the discussions to which this interest has given rise and in the arrangements by which they may terminate the occasion has been judged proper for asserting as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved that the American continents by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers It was stated at the commencement of the last session that a great effort was then making in Spain and Portugal to improve the condition of the people of those countries and that it appeared to be conducted with extraordinary moderation I Of events in that quarter of the globe with which we have so much intercourse and from which we derive our origin we have always been anxious and interested spectators The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow men on that side of the Atlantic It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America This difference proceeds from that which exists in their respective governments And to the defense of our own which has been achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure and matured by the wisdom of their most enlightened citizens and under which we have enjoyed unexampled felicity this whole nation is devoted But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintained it and whose independence we have on great consideration and on just principles acknowledged we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them or controlling in any other manner their destiny by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition towards the United States In the war between those new governments and Spain we declared our neutrality at the time of their recognition and to this we have adhered and shall continue to adhere provided no change shall occur which in the judgment of the competent authorities of this government shall make a corresponding change on the part of the United States indispensable to their security The late events in Spain and Portugal shew that Europe is still unsettled Of this important fact no stronger proof can be adduced than that the allied powers should have thought it proper on any principle satisfactory to themselves To what extent such interposition may be carried on the same principle is a question to which all independent powers whose governments differ from theirs are interested even those most remote and surely none more so than the United States Our policy in regard to Europe which was adopted at an early stage of the wars which have so long agitated that quarter of the globe nevertheless remains the same which is not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers to consider the government de facto as the legitimate government for us to cultivate friendly relations with it and to preserve those relations by a frank rm and manly policy meeting in all instances the just claims of every power submitting to injuries from none But in regard to these continents circumstances are eminently and conspicuously different It is equally impossible therefore that we should behold such interposition in any form with indifference If we look to the comparative strength and resources of Spain and those new governments and their distance from each other it must be obvious that she can never subdue them It is still the true policy of the United States to leave the parties to themselves in the hope that other powers will pursue the same course Foreign Policy 1865 1888 Material basis for new American approach Before 1865 it was reactive now it is proactive Also ideological basis for new American foreign policy Fared Thayer Mahan Naval of cer and professor at the Naval War College quotMost important strategist of the 19th cquot Argues that sea power was the driving force behind history About who was in power and who was subjected to it quotThe In uence of Sea Power upon Historyquot Neutral commerce like George Washington Wells quotThe Problem of overproductionquot In response to the boom and bust of the second industrial revolution ldea that the economic dynamo is producing too much for domestic consumption Put new pressures on the government 0 To intervene abroad to protect American commerce 0 Ex National Association of Manufacturers Feared that European countries would block American companies from entering their markets 1898 The US has the 4th largest army in the world Perhaps they were following Mahan and Wells advice Annexation of Hawaii Expanding its reach Overthrew of Queen Liliuokalani In 1893 McKinley Decision to annex 1898 Alfred Mahon the In uence of Sea Power upon History To turn now from the particular lessons drawn from the history of the past to the general question of the in uence of government upon the sea career of its people it is seen that that in uence can work in two distinct but closely related ways First in peace The government by its policy can favor the natural growth of a people39s industries and its tendencies to seek adventure and gain by way of the sea or it can try to develop such industries and such seagoing bent when they do not naturally exist or on the other hand the government may by mistaken action check and fetter the progress which the people left to themselves would make In any one of these ways the in uence of the government will be felt making or marring the sea power of the country in the matter of peaceful commerce upon which alone it cannot be too often insisted a thoroughly strong navy can be based Secondly for war The in uence of the government will be felt in its most legitimate manner in maintaining an armed navy of a size commensurate with the growth of its shipping and the importance of the interests connected with it More important even than the size of the navy is the question of its institutions favoring a healthful spirit and activity and providing for rapid development in time of war by an adequate reserve of men and of ships and by measures for drawing out that general reserve power which has before been pointed to when considering the character and pursuits of the people Undoubtedly under this second head of warlike preparation must come the maintenance of suitable naval stations in those distant parts of the world to which the armed shipping must follow the peaceful vessels of commerce The protection of such stations must depend either upon direct military force as do Gibraltar and Malta or upon a surrounding friendly population such as the American colonists once were to England and it may be presumed the Australian colonists now are Such friendly surroundings and backing joined to a reasonable military provision are the best of defenses and when combined with decided preponderance at sea make a scattered and extensive empire like that of England secure for while it is true that an unexpected attack may cause disaster in some one quarter the actual superiority of naval power prevents such disaster from being general or irremediable History has sufficiently proved this England39s naval bases have been in all parts of the world and her eets have at once protected them kept open the communications between them and relied upon them for shelter Calls for the construction of the naval bases or pseudocolonies Still emphasizes American exceptionalism Not really to focus on colonizing other lands Colonies attached to the mothercountry afford therefore the surest means of supporting abroad the sea power of a country In peace the in uence of the government should be felt in promoting by all means a warmth of attachment and a unity of interest which will make the welfare of one the welfare of all and the quarrel of one the quarrel of all and in war or rather for war by inducing such measures of organization and defense as shall be felt by all to be a fair distribution of a burden of which each reaps the benefit Such colonies the United States has not and is not likely to have As regards purely military naval stations the feeling of her people was probably accurately expressed by an historian of the English navy a hundred years ago speaking then of Gibraltar and Port Mahon quotMilitary governmentsquot said he quotagree so little with the industry of a trading people and are in themselves so repugnant to the genius of the British people that I do not wonder that men of good sense and of all parties have inclined to give up these as Tangiers was given upquot Having To provide resting places for them where they can coal and repair would be one of the first duties of a government proposing to itself the development of the power of the nation at sea to build up for the nation a navy which if not capable of reaching distant countries shall at least be able to keep clear the chief approaches to its own The eyes of the country have for a quarter of a century been turned from the sea the results of such a policy and of its opposite will be shown in the instance of France and of England Without asserting a narrow parallelism between the case of the United States and either of these it may safely be said that it is essential to the welfare of the In order to do this the enemy must be kept not only out of our ports but far away from our coasts Mahon sees naval bases as mini colonies Written during the second industrial resolving Newly developed steel rails electric light internal combustion engine al made transport cheaper and more efficient Modernization of agriculture American farming made more productive through harvesting machines Boom and bust period Panic of 1873 Panic of 1893 The Long Depression 1 1 12 unemployment Serious de ation Constant anxiety about how sustainable growth would be Josiah Strong Anglo Saxon It is not necessary to argue to those for whom I write that the two great needs of mankind that all men may be lifted up into the light of the highest Christian civilization are first a pure spiritual Christianity and second civil liberty Without controversy these are the forces which in the past have contributed most to the elevation of the human race and they must continue to be in the future the most efficient ministers to its progress It follows then that the Anglo Saxon as the great representative of these two ideas the depositary of these two greatest blessings sustains peculiar relations to the world39s future is divinely commissioned to be in a peculiar sense his brother39s keeper Add to this the fact of his rapidly increasing strength in modern times and we have wellnigh a demonstration of his destiny In 1700 this race numbered less than 6000000 souls In 1800 AngloSaxons I use the term somewhat broadly to include all English speaking peoples had increased to about 20500000 and now in 1890 they number more than 120000000 having multiplied almost sixfold in ninety years At the end of the reign of Charles 11 the English colonists in America numbered 200000 During these two hundred years our population has increased two hundred and fiftyfold And the expansion of this race has been no less remarkable than its multiplication In one century the United States has increased its territory tenfold while the enormous acquisition of foreign territory by Great Britainand chie y within the last hundred yearsis wholly unparalleled in history This mighty AngloSaxon race though comprising only onethirteenth part of mankind now rules more than onethird of the earth39s surface and more than onefourth of its people And if this race while growing from 6000000 to 120000000 thus gained possession of a third portion of the earth is it to be supposed that when it numbers 1000000000 it will lose the disposition or lack the power to extend its sway America is to have the great preponderance of numbers and of wealth and by the logic of events will follow the scepter of controlling in uence This will be but the consummation of a movement as old as civilizationa result to which men have looked forward for centuries John Adams records that nothing was quotmore ancient in his memory than the observation that arts sciences and empire had traveled westward and in conversation it was always added that their next leap would be over the Atlantic into Americaquot He recalled a couplet that had been inscribed or rather drilled into a rock on the shore of Monument Bay in our old colony of Plymouth The Eastern nations sink their glory ends and empire rises where the sun descends Mr Darwin is not only disposed to see in the superior vigor of our people an illustration of his favorite theory of natural selection but even intimates that the world39s history thus far has been simply preparatory for our future and tributary to it He says quotThere is apparently much truth in the belief that the wonderful progress of the United States as well as the character of the people are the results of natural selection for the more energetic restless and courageous men from all parts of Europe have emigrated during the last ten or twelve generations to that great country and have their succeeded best Looking at the distant future I do not think that the Rev Mr Zincked takes an exaggerated view when he says 39All other series of eventsas that which resulted in the culture of mind in Greece and that which resulted in the Empire of Romeonly appear to have purpose and value when viewed in connection with or rather as subsidiary to the great stream of AngloSaxon emigration to the West quot There is abundant reason to believe that the AngloSaxon race is to be is indeed already becoming and more effective here than in the mother country The marked superiority of this race is due in large measure to its highly mixed origin Says Rawlinson and adds quotEven the Jews who are so often cited as an example of a race at once pure and strong may with more reason be adduced on the opposite side of the argumentquot The ancient Egyptians the Greeks and the Romans were all mixed races Among modem races the most conspicuous example is afforded by the AngloSaxons There is here a new commingling of races and while the largest injections of foreign blood are substantially the same elements that constituted the original AngloSaxon admixture so that we may infer the general type will be preserved there are strains of other bloods being added which if Mr Emerson39s remark is true that quotthe best nations are those most widely relatedquot may be expected to improve the stock and aid it to a higher destiny If the dangers of immigration which have been pointed out can be successfully met for the next few years until it has passed its climax it may be expected to add value to the amalgam which will constitute the new AngloSaxon race of the New World Concerning our future Herbert Spencer says quotOne great result is I think tolerably clear From biological truths it is to be inferred that the eventual mixture of the allied varieties of the Aryan race forming the population will produce a more powerful type of man than has hitherto existed and a type of man more plastic more adaptable more capable of undergoing the modifications needful for complete social life I think whatever difficulties they may have to surmount and whatever tribulations they may have to pass through the Americans may reasonably look forward to a time when they will have produced a civilization grander than any the world has knownquot It may be easily shown and is of no small significance that the two great ideas of which the AngloSaxon is the exponent are having a fuller development in the United States than in Great Britain There the union of Church and State tends strongly to paralyze some of the members of the body of Christ Here there is no such in uence to destroy spiritual life and power Here also has been evolved the form of government consistent with the largest possible civil liberty Furthermore it is significant that the marked characteristics of this race are being here emphasized most We have seen that although England is by far the richest nation of Europe we have already outstripped her in the race after wealth and we have only begun the development of our vast resources His unequaled energy his indomitable perseverance and his personal independence made him a pioneer He excels all others in pushing his way into new countries It was those in whom this tendency was strongest that came to America and this inherited tendency has been further developed by the westward sweep of successive generations across the continent So noticeable has this characteristic become that English visitors remark it Charles Dickens once said that the typical American would hesitate to enter heaven unless assured that he could go farther west and he is developing in the United States an energy which in eager activity and effectiveness is peculiarly American This is due partly to the fact that Americans are much better fed than Europeans and partly to the undeveloped resources of a new country but more largely to our climate which acts as a constant stimulus Ten years after the landing of the Pilgrims the Rev Francis Higginson a good observer wrote quotA sup of New England air is better than a whole agon of English alequot Thus early had the stimulating effect of our climate been noted In Europe the various ranks of society are like the strata of the earth fixed and fossilized There can be no great change without a terrible upheaval a social earthquake Here society is like the waters of the sea mobile as General Garfield said and so signally illustrated in his own experience that which is at the bottom today may one day ash on the crest of the highest wave Everyone is free to become whatever he can make of himself free to transform himself from a rail splitter or a tanner or a canalboy into the nation39s President Our aristocracy unlike that of Europe is open to all comers Wealth position in uence are prizes offered for energy and every farmer39s boy every apprentice and clerk every friendless and penniless immigrant is free to enter the lists Thus many causes cooperate to produce here the most forceful and tremendous energy in the world What is the significance of such facts These tendencies enfold the future they are the mighty alphabet with which God writes his prophecies May we not by a careful laying together of the letters spell out something of his meaning It seems to me that God with infinite wisdom and skill is training the AngloSaxon race for an hour sure to come in the world39s future Heretofore there has always been in the history of the world a comparatively unoccupied land westward into which the crowded countries of the East have poured their surplus populations But the widening waves of migration which millenniums ago rolled east and west from the valley of the Euphrates meet today on our Pacific coast The unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited and will soon be taken The time is coming when the pressure of population on the means of subsistence will be felt here as it is now felt in Europe and Asia Then will the world enter upon a new stage of its historythe nal competition of races for which the AngloSaxon is being schooled Long before the thousand millions are here the mighty centrifugal tendency inherent in this stock and strengthened in the United States will assert itself Then this race of unequaled energy with all the majesty of numbers and the might of wealth behind itthe representative let us hope of the largest liberty the purest Christianity the highest civilizationhaving developed peculiarly aggressive traits calculated to impress its institutions upon mankind will spread itself over the earth IfI read not amiss this powerful race will move down upon Mexico down upon Central and South America out upon the islands of the sea over upon Africa and beyond And can anyone doubt that the results of this competition of races will be the quotsurvival of the fittestquot quotAny peoplequot says Dr Bushnell quotthat is physiologically advanced in culture though it be only in a degree beyond another which is mingled with it on strictly equal terms is sure to live down and finally live out its inferior Nothing can save the inferior race but a ready and pliant assimilation Whether the feebler and more abject races are going to be regenerated and raised up is already very much of a question What if it should be God39s plan to people the world with better and finer materialquot If you see social Darwinism on the test as a quote it is Josiah Strong Richard Onley American Jurisdiction Sir I am directed by the President to communicate to you his views upon a subject to which he has given much anxious thought and respecting which he has not reached a conclusion without a lively sense of its great importance as well as of the serious responsibility involved in any action now to be taken It is not proposed and for present purposes is not necessary to enter into any detailed account of the controversy between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the western frontier of the colony of British Guiana The important features of the existing situation may be brie y stated extent is in dispute between Great Britain on the one hand and the South American republic of Venezuela on the other 2 through an agreement with her adversary either upon the subject itself or upon an arbitration 3 during which period many earnest and persistent efforts of Venezuela to establish a boundary by agreement have proved unsuccessful 4 The futility of the endeavor to obtain a conventional line being recognized Venezuela for a quarter of a century has asked and striven for arbitration 5 Great Britain however has always and continuously refused to arbitrate except upon the condition of a renunciation of a large part of the Venezuelan claim and of a concession to herself of a large share of the territory in controversy 6 By the frequent interposition of its good offices at the instance of Venezuela by constantly urging and promoting the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries by pressing for arbitration of the disputed boundary by offering to act as arbitrator by expressing its grave concern whenever new alleged instances of British aggression upon Venezuelan territory have been brought to its notice the government of the United States has made it clear to Great Britain and to the world that the controversy is one in which both its honor and its interests are involved and the continuance of which it cannot regard with indifference The accuracy of the foregoing analysis of the existing status cannot it is believed be challenged It shows that status to be such that those charged with the interests of the United States are now forced to determine exactly what those interests are and what course of action they require It compels them to decide to what extent if any the United States may and should intervene in a controversy between and primarily concerning only Great Britain and Venezuela and to decide how far it is bound to see that the integrity of Venezuelan territory is not impaired by the pretensions of its powerful antagonist of the two countries justifies and and might well subject it to the charge of impertinent intermeddling with affairs with which it has no rightful COIICCI39II shall not result in the accomplishment of the end in view The question thus presented as matter of principle and regard being had to the settled national policy does not seem difficult of solution Yet the momentous practical consequences dependent upon its determination require that it should be carefully considered and that the grounds of the conclusion arrived at should be fully and frankly stated That there are circumstances under which a nation may justly interpose in a controversy to which two or more other nations are the direct and immediate parties is an admitted canon of international law The doctrine is ordinarily expressed in terms of the most general character and is perhaps incapable of more specific statement It is declared in substance that a nation may avail itself of this right whenever what is done or proposed by any of the parties primarily concerned is a serious and direct menace to its own integrity tranquility or welfare The propriety of the rule when applied in good faith will not be questioned in any quarter On the other hand it is an inevitable though unfortunate consequence of the wide scope of the rule that it has only too often been made a cloak for schemes of wanton spoliation and aggrandizement We are concerned at this time however not so much with the general rule as with a form of it which is peculiarly and distinctively American Washington in the solemn admonitions of the Farewell Address eXplicitly warned his countrymen against entanglements with the politics or the controversies of European powers Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns Hence therefore it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course During the administration of President Monroe this doctrine of the Farewell Address was first considered In all its aspects and with a view to all its practical consequences Doubtless it was thought the latest addition to the family of nations should not make haste to prescribe rules for the guidance of its older members and the eXpediency and propriety of serving the powers of Europe with notice of a complete and distinctive to a generation to whom the French alliance with its manifold advantages to the cause of American independence was fresh in mind Our military is stronger so we can enforce the Monroe doctrine and get more involved adding teeth to the Monroe Doctrine The lately born nation had greatly increased in power and resources had demonstrated its strength on land and sea and as well in the con icts of arms as in the pursuits of peace and had begun to realize the commanding position on this continent which the character of its people their free institutions and their remoteness from the chief scene of European contentions combined to give to it The Monroe administration therefore did not hesitate to accept and apply the logic of the Farewell Address by declaring in effect that American nonintervention in European affairs necessarily implied and meant European nonintervention in American affairs There is then a doctrine of American public law well founded in principle and abundantly sanctioned by precedent which entitles and requires the United States to treat as an injury to itself the forcible assumption by a European power of political control over an American state The application of the doctrine to the boundary dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela remains to be made and presents no real difficulty Though the dispute relates to a boundary line yet as it is between states it necessarily imports political control to be lost by one party and gained by the other The political control at stake too is of no mean importance but concerns a domain of great extent the British claim it will be remembered apparently eXpanded in two years some 33000 square miles and if it also directly involves the command of the mouth of the Orinoco is of immense consequence in connection with the whole river navigation of the interior of South America It has been intimated indeed that in respect of these South American possessions Great Britain is herself an American state like any other so that a controversy between her and Venezuela is to be settled between themselves as if it were between Venezuela and Brazil or between Venezuela and Colombia and does not call for or justify United States intervention If this view be tenable at all the logical sequence is plain Great Britain as a South American state is to be entirely differentiated from Great Britain generally and if the boundary question cannot be settled otherwise than by force British Guiana with her own independent resources and not those of the British Empire should be left to settle the matter with Venezuela an arrangement which very possibly Venezuela might not object to But the proposition that a European power with an American dependency is for the purposes of the Monroe Doctrine to be classed not as a European but as an American state will not admit of serious discussion If it were to be adopted the Monroe Doctrine would be too valueless to be worth asserting Not only would every European power now having a South American colony be enabled to extend its possessions on this continent indefinitely but any other European power might also do the same by first taking pains to procure a fraction of South American soil by voluntary cession The declaration of the Monroe message that eXisting colonies or dependencies of a European power would not be interfered with by the United States means colonies or dependencies then eXisting with their limits as then eXisting Thus the British demand that her right to a portion of the disputed territory shall be acknowledged before she will consent to an arbitration as to the rest seems to stand upon nothing but her own ipse digit pronouncement She says to Venezuela in substance quotYou can get none of the debatable land by force because you are not strong enough you can get none by treaty because I will not agree and you can take your chance of getting a portion by arbitration only if you first agree to abandon to me such other portion as I may designatequot It is not perceived how such an attitude can be defended nor how it is reconcilable with that love of justice and fair play so eminently characteristic of the English race It in effect deprives Venezuela of her free agency and puts her under virtual duress Territory acquired by reason of it will be as much wrested from her by the strong hand as if occupied by British troops or covered by British eets It seems therefore quite impossible that this position of Great Britain should be assented to by the United States or that if such position be adhered to with the result of enlarging the bounds of British Guiana it should not be regarded as amounting in substance to an invasion and conquest of Venezuelan territory In these circumstances the duty of the President appears to him unmistakable and imperative Great Britain39s assertion of title to the disputed territory combined with her refusal to have that title investigated being a substantial appropriation of the territory to her own use not to protest and give warning that the transaction will be regarded as injurious to the interests of the people of the United States as well as oppressive in itself would be to ignore an established policy with which the honor and welfare of this country are closely identified While the measures necessary or proper for the vindication of that policy are to be determined by another branch of the government it is clearly for the executive to leave nothing undone which may tend to render such determination unnecessary You are instructed therefore to present the foregoing views to Lord Salisbury by reading to him this communication leaving with him a copy should he so desire and to reinforce them by such pertinent considerations as will doubtless occur to you They call for a definite decision upon the point whether Great Britain will consent or will decline to submit the Venezuelan boundary question in its entirety to impartial arbitration It is the earnest hope of the President that the conclusion will be on the side of arbitration and that Great Britain will add one more to the conspicuous precedents she has already furnished in favor of that wise and just mode of adjusting international disputes If he is to be disappointed in that hope however a result not to be anticipated and in his judgment calculated to greatly embarrass the future relations between this country and Great Britain it is his wish to be made acquainted with the fact at such early date as will enable him to lay the whole subject before Congress in his next annual message
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