HIST Notes (Apr 12 & 14)
HIST Notes (Apr 12 & 14) HIST 2020-016
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by DeAngelica Rose on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2020-016 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Clay Cooper in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History II in History at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
4/12 Suburbs White picket fence Shopping centers (malls) o Spring up in large quantities in the 1950s o Major movement of retail businesses closer to where people lived o Designed specifically for middle class white women o Private space and not public space So they can feel safe and protected (middle class white women) Widened shopping spaces since most women haven’t driven much prior to this o Shopping was one of the things women thought could fix them “Problem that has no name” o coined by sociologist Betty Friedan o found most middle class housewives thought that something was off and couldn’t put their finger on it they felt embarrassed since the economy was doing so well but they still felt like they were missing something in life a lot of women felt like they were failures (because of TV) and selfish for feeling like something was missing o points to buying things can’t help you and women weren’t ungrateful Feminine Mystique (1963) Women can’t find happiness in a dull routine Women must find work that allows them to use their full potential Most women wanted more than doing housework but couldn’t vocalize it since they felt like they couldn’t speak up since in the suburbs they felt like their opinions didn’t matter They’re defined by how they help others (wife, mother, etc.) not as an individual Women’s Movement Fueled by Feminine Mystique Birth control pill (1960) o Allows for more expressive sexuality o More women used it to: Gives women a voice in family planning Helps decide timing Women can still have a career and plan their pregnancies around it so it doesn’t hinder professional advancement Why were feminists upset about Ms. America pageant? o Traditionally women were judged off an ideal standard of beauty (set by men) and that women get awarded based on how attractive they are o Protesters thought women should be judged by their brain/actions and judging them on their looks was demeaning Real goal of this movement was equal pay and equal access to jobs (still not completely there yet) Inspire by Civil Rights movement Gender roles Constricting because of society (for women) Constricting to for men: o Felt pressured/anxiety because they couldn’t live up to society’s standards of what a man should do o Intense pressure to be a successful provider o To earn the money to move family to suburbs and build a house o A lot of men chaffed under pressure Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman (1949) o Main character: Willy Loman guy of humble means aging salesman in a time when traveling salesmen were coming to an end wasn’t making money anymore and worried about being able to provide for his family also worried about his failures as a father; his two sons failed to become independent minded men it was common for people to become an adult (married, have a job, etc.) by 18 his kids weren’t like this title comes from Loman deciding that his only way to help his family is by giving them his life insurance so he decides to have a car accident (it wasn’t an accident) in the hopes of dying so he could provide for his family Alternative proposed in 1953 via Playboy o Hugh Heffner o On the surface was porn that came to Heffner since he bought unpublished nude photos of Marilyn Monroe o Ultimately the articles and ads represented a philosophy Heffner had A whole new lifestyle Towards men who felt that wives told them what to do and took their money Men should be single, live in the city, listens to jazz, not tied down to a woman, has sex with whoever he wants (Heffner thinks this is the natural way men should be) o There’s evidence people actually fell for these ideals o Heffner offered an escape from the suburbs o Did this as ‘men’s liberation’ o Why is this not red flagged as communism since McCarthyism is going on? Defended since it’s heterosexual smut (for men and only had women) There were crackdowns on homosexual behavior (it was common for students and teachers to be suspected of being gay and kicked out of school/losing their jobs) People could be thrown in jail for being gay Objectifies women A strongly capitalistic message (“buy this and you’ll buy happiness”) Public academic studies on human sexuality o Seen as racy prior to this (they were viewed as perverts for wanting to research this) o Alfred Kinsey Zoologist Broke into the study of sexual behavior in humans Kinsey Reports (Sexual Behavior in Human Female ’48; Sexual Behavior in Human Male ’53) Knowledge came by survey (people to voluntarily respond) Leads to a bit of a skewed sample size (most people are reluctant since they felt their answers could be turned against them if they weren’t completely straight) People most likely to answer his surveys: prostitutes, felons, prisoners (doesn’t represent mainstream of American population) Results were shocking (half of women and ¾ men had sex prior to marriage; people had affairs; up to 70% of men had sex with a prostitute at some point) Found that 62% of women claimed they masturbated About half reported oral sex occurred during marriages o Opened people’s eyes that what’s happening in film isn’t what’s happening in real life o Made breakthroughs: Men and women reach sexual peaks at different times Created scales of sexuality 7 Step Scale (ends being purely homosexual and purely heterosexual) most people are somewhere in the middle 1/3 of men and 1/6 of women had sex with a same sex partner at some point in their lives about 10% of men were purely homosexual as adults and about 5% of women very skewed but still gets close to findings that are present today Significance: o Shows 50s wasn’t as pure as shown on tv and first attempt and researching human sexuality Civil Rights Consider the challenge to get rights is to convince people with power to include them in it (people who have power to give power to people who don’t have it) Generally people in charge don’t want to share their power Ways: o Consciousness raising Bringing to light that black Americans were unequal, suffering, victims to violence with no legal consequences, and the society that was designed to oppress them was affecting them emotionally, economically, etc. Making people aware of the problem and looking at their own ideals o Using economic power AA’s could pull their resources, organize, and boycott (businesses, gov. agencies) places that were keeping them oppressed (also embargos) Makes a huge impact (even though they couldn’t vote they still had money) o Jackie Robinson (1947) First AA in major league baseball player Negro Leagues Where darker skinned Latinos and AA’s could play baseball Black owned business (very lucrative) Picked to break color barrier because of his background In WWII, went to UCLA, involved with NAACP Civil rights activist Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey: picked Robinson because of he had very strict requirements knowing that he’d be harassed, threatened, etc. but he was to do nothing since they would win and the press would say allowing black players into major league players was a mistake and they’d use stereotypes to justify it A great ambassador for AA’s More AA’s come into the game Importance: Signifies that black people are a part of American and are considered equal The power of sports meant that people like Jackie Robinson would be idols to young white kids o Viewed as equals and white kids would cheer for them o 1950 court case Heman Sweatt Denied entry into law school at University of Texas based on race Separate but equal was still in effect Texas didn’t have a state African American law school Pressed charges because of this Texas scrambled and sort of made an all black law school Found an abandoned basement and called it a law school on the hopes that the claims would be denied Sweatt v Painter (1950) Led by NAACP and their lawyers Able to convince the court there was a problem with “separate but equal” o Wouldn't have same funding/prestige/resources (teachers) o Ruled separate can’t be equal with law schools Permitted to enter University of Texas law school o Major blow to Plessey vs. Ferguson and segregation 1951 o Harry Moore and his wife were killed High ranking NAACP officer Well known civil rights activist On Christmas day in their house in Florida were victims of a firebomb This high profile assassination and that Florida didn’t do anything to catch who did it set off an international storm and the UN saw a massive international petition to call out US Helps bring about public focus on US More and more mentions of WWII This shame forced people to consider their racial views 4/14 Classical (Classical) Civil Rights Movement Late ‘40s - 1965 Historically what people call the Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board of Education (1954) o Why were they suing? AA’s lived close to a white elementary school so the Brown family was forced to travel across town to send their child to school Gets before SC in ‘54 Brown’s lawyer: Thurgood Marshall (later the first black SC justice) th Had lots of arguments based on 14 amend (equal civil rights for all) The one that stands out most is the one with work from Kenneth Clark (black sociologist) Clark’s test: a test with dolls (which one is attractive, nice, etc.); brought in black and white kids and used black and white dolls The good/pretty doll (by both black and white kids) was the white doll He asked ‘which doll do you look like?’ this was when the AA children realized what they’d just answered and that they’d given into society’s view of them Because black children were separated from white children (kept in separate schools; segregation; white supremacy, etc.) from birth that they were also buying into the hype that white people were better This doesn’t sway the SC court by itself Clear representation of racial bias (Clark’s test) CNN’s follow up test: had pretty much the same results Plessey v. F. is shot down Case comes back o Brown v. Board (2) (1955) Court considers how quickly schools so mix children When? o “with all deliberate speed”; translation: whenever you feel like it no Southern state takes action South made declarations saying they’d never desegregate schools 1955 o Rosa Parks Montgomery: refused to give up her seat at the front of the bus This refusal is sometimes misunderstood Not the every woman She was trained in civil rights and was an activist It was a planned event Was arrested Bus boycott happened as a result of this A form of economic power o Martin Luther King, Jr. Made his name famous by organizing the bus boycott Rises in stature and becomes sort of the face of the Civil Rights movement o Emmett Till Young AA child (from Chicago so he wasn’t raised in the Jim Crow south) who supposedly whistled at a white woman in MS Brutally murdered by adult white men Parents didn’t mention the severity of what happens in the South Wasn’t as careful about his conduct (he was about 12) Became an international news because of the reaction of Till’s parents What did they do? o They held an open casket funeral and invited the press to see their unrecognizable child because he was beaten so bad o This showed what white supremacy does to AA families/children o Caused people to consider their views Desegregation (first attempt) Little Rock Nine (1957) o Desegregation vs. integration Desegregation: “token desegregation” it’s a gesture (they’ll send x amount of black kids from one school to a white school never the other way around) Integration: implies more equality; a much fuller process (not x amount of children going; there’s a balance) o Little Rock City school board decided to try and follow the Brown decision Extremely unpopular o Gov. Orval E. Faubus Elected for saying he’d never let black and white children to go to school together Tries to stop the 9 by calling the national guard and having them stand at the school entrance to keep out the nine black students Dwight Eisenhower (elected in 1952) (R) Life long military man (not a politician) Kinda neutral on civil rights Insisted on executing the laws Very annoyed by Faubus st Eisenhower called out the army (101 airborne) o Who sent away national guard Army was to keep order and keep the black students in Faubus ultimately decides to shut down the school systems (for the whole year in Arkansas) Plan was to create a voucher system so white families could go to private schools with state funding but that doesn’t work but instead we just have a lost year for Arkansas education o Next year it starts again o Experience for black students wasn’t good Lots of abuse (verbally/physically) Only one of the nine graduated Greensboro Sit Ins (1960) o First official sit ins o College students sat at lunch counters at department stores AA’s were allowed to shop here but couldn’t eat at the counters Demanded service even though they knew they wouldn’t get it Purpose: to get the press involved Assumed they’ll get arrested, beaten, or both Knew it would draw the press Devoutly dedicated themselves (trained for this) to be non-violent so that when they were dragged off when the news cameras were rolling they wouldn’t fight back What does being non-violent do for them with the cameras on? It shows the other side as the aggressor They’re being victimized o SNCC (student non-violent coordinating committee) Black student led org. who challenged segregation non-violently o Very effective form of protest and quickly spread through historically black colleges o Launches the student part of the civil rights movement March on Washington 1963 o People marched on Washington for equal rights for AA o King gave the main speech o MLK “I Have a Dream” John Lewis (his top aid) didn’t want King to give this speech since he’d given in so many times before (his “stump speech” a.k.a. go to speech) They gave him another speech to read Initially he did read it but it wasn’t his style since he was a preacher and memorized all of his sermons He spoke in a style common to southern AA churches Very emotional and nothing written/read Eventually he ignores the speech and launches into “I Have a Dream” What they (the advisors) forgot was that the millions of white families watching at home had never heard him speak and that his message wasn’t threatening to them King appeared very moderate in white viewers in 1963 (because of King’s speech) suburban white Americans were on board with civil rights He makes whites think civil rights seem safe o Later in ’63 Kennedy had vaguely promised to help civil rights Was assassinated This gave momentum to civil rights legislated People found him charismatic even if they don’t agree with him politically His death hit Americans hard Lyndon Johnson Used Kennedy’s memory and the fact that he wanted to get civil rights legislation passed helped pass the Civil Rights Act (1964) and Voting Rights Act (1965) he intimidated people by using his height and powers of persuasion Black Power 1966 Stokley Carmichael white moderates, who joined because of MLK, felt betrayed rejection of whites in SNCC had armed self defense Black Panthers o Enough black people had died at this point o Encouraged people to fight back o Somewhere between a black police force and black KKK o Protective defensive force for AA o Rejection of SNCC’s founding values Equality on paper doesn’t equal equality in real life (whites couldn’t seem to understand this) o There were still lots of barriers along the way Banks and real estate agents were keeping them out of certain neighborhoods Black CEOs on wall street weren’t a thing MLK was assassinated in ’68 in Memphis o Speaking at a sanitation worker strike o King felt his work wasn’t done as long as blacks were making less money and left out of better paying jobs because of their race his job wasn’t done as a civil rights activist o Chaos erupted o AAs protested and rioted his death
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