LIFE 103- Animals Week 4
LIFE 103- Animals Week 4 LIFE 103
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Circulatory Systems Components: ● Circulatory fluid carries nutrients (glucose, ions, etc) and wastes and sometimes oxygen ● System of vessels for the movement of fluid ● Pump generates pressure to move fluids by using metabolic energy Types: ● Open vessels are not connected ○ Hemolymph as circulatory fluid bathes cells for exchange ○ Arthropods, many molluscs ○ Pressure differences across body and body movements circulate blood back to retrieving vessels which go to heart, and valves ensure proper direction of fluid ● Closed vessels all connected ○ Blood as circulatory fluid cells exchange with interstitial fluid and interstitial fluid exchanges with blood ○ Vertebrates, annelids, cephalopods (note that this is a group in molluscs) ○ More metabolically expensive, but pro is that there can be higher pressure for more effective delivery of oxygen to tissues Components of Closed system ● Arteries carry blood away from heart ● Capillaries part with most surface area, site of exchange in tissues ● Veins bring blood back to heart Types of Closed systems ● Single circulatory system ○ Rayfinned fish, sharks, rays ○ Consists of a single pump and single loop: heart (single atrium receives, single ventricle pumps out)→ gills→ tissues ○ Requires less energy ○ For animals with lower metabolic rates, tend to be ectotherms ● Double circulatory system a) Pulmocutaneous circuit ○ Frogs, most reptiles ○ Two atria receive blood (half from gills (oxygenated) and half from tissues (deoxygenated)), then blood mixes in single ventricle which pumps blood out (some to gills and some to tissues blood at this point is half oxygenated and half deoxygenated) b) Pulmonary and systemic circuit ○ Birds, mammals ○ Two atria and two ventricles, completely separated on sides of the heart ○ Two circuits pulmonary to lung capillaries and systemic to systemic capillaries (tissues) so that blood enters first set of atrium and ventricle, pumped to lungs, enters second set of atrium and ventricle, pumped to body Oxygen: Blood has reversible oxygen binding proteins ● Hemoglobin in vertebrates iron within red blood cells ● Hemocyanin in crustaceans, some molluscs copper suspended in blood In less acidic environments it can pick up four oxygen molecules in the presence of a lot of oxygen (lungs environment). In more acidic environments (due to higher levels of CO 2 it releases oxygen (tissues environment). Hemoglobin comes in different forms which have different oxygen affinities; fetus with higher oxygen affinity can always take oxygen from mother’s blood. Pressure: Arteries are closer to the heart (immediately after powerful pump) so they must have thicker layers of smooth muscle and connective tissue to not burst. Veins are after capillaries (where there is almost no pressure) so they must have valves to prevent backflow and skeletal muscle around them to push blood through. Both have endothelium and at least some layers of smooth muscle and connective tissue. Capillaries are for exchange in tissues so they must have super thin walls cannot stand much pressure and even have pores. Therefore in capillaries, fluid from the blood is being forced out from blood pressure into tissues. Osmotic pressure is moving liquid into the vessels, but net movement is out of capillaries. Therefore fluid must be collected and returned by lymph system. (next lecture)
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