Stereotypes and Social Facilitation/Group Dynamics
Stereotypes and Social Facilitation/Group Dynamics PSYCH 221
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AmberNicole on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 221 at East Carolina University taught by Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Stereotypes Historical perspective o Usually a couple hundred years old o Race implies speciation o Explained by geographical region of history- we are all the same Political perspective o We see that stereotypes allow people in power to rationalize different things to divide and conquer the masses. Sociocultural perspective o Differences between different cultures they didn’t like the others because people group by similarity o There are real difference between immigrants that come into this nation and this is where the stereotypes come from (because they are different than the average American) o Were getting more segregation and fragmentation How stereotypes are formed in the mind of the individual 1. Categorization o Social categorization We organize things to make perceptual sense of things so we categorize stimuli First categorization is male: female categorization We categorize everything while we socially categorize people 2. Forming Groups o In-group/Out-group Done after we determine group membership Always in relation to self Out-group homogeneity effect Out-group members are all the same Homogenous is the same Women look at men and say all men are pigs Men say all women are bitches Result of categorization and forming groups. Leads us to generalize an individual to the entire group 1. Little contact with the out-group o that is what makes them be out-group members; they are not like us. o If you don’t have much exposure to the out-group, you will think they are all alike 2. We don’t encounter a representative sample o one person does not represent 3.5 billion people Stereotypes distorting our perceptions of reality Contrast Effect o We are an organism designed to provide information when there is a change in the stimuli o Sensory system responds to the chain or contrast o Don’t notice the gradual change until the big change o Cant have contrast without gradual change because of the neurotransmitters firing in our sensory system o “only know pleasure because of pain” o Ex: child’s hand in hot and cold water, then in warm water. When their hands are put in the warm water, the hand that was in the cold water will feel hot to the warm water while the hand that was in the hot water will feel cold when put in warm water. Discrepancy between stimulus and one’s expectations that leads to the experience Is it consistent with expectations (stereotype) or is it inconsistent Mildly mental and severe mental vs moderately metal Expectations create contrast in order to create stereotypes and distort perceptions Past experience leads to different expectations of perception Sub-categorizations “I’m not racist my best friend is black” When we find out group members that don’t meet the expectation we take them out of the stereo type but keep the negative view of the stereotype of the rest of that group If your categorization contains more than 3 groups is more reasonable and intelligent your are perceived as Black athelete, ghetto urban black, and middle class black Can you educate individuals not to sub-categorize? Yes. Contact with outgroup members changes perception (VERY IMPORTANT) Contrast effect: When an expectation is confirmed, not much attention is paid, but when it is not confirmed, it grabs our attention Our experience in the moment is a result of our past conditioning The more categories you have, the more praised you are. More inclusive with subcatagorization 1. Increase Exposure to the Outgroup Can we educate to deal with this type of negative stereotype Stereotype is belief Prejudice is the attitude towards that belief Discrimination is behavior acting upon it Schoolastic voucher: increases segregation with catholic, private, and public schools. 2. Catch 22 Cant win: damned if you do, damned it you don’t Research is straight forward and clear with people or inanimate objects (were talking people here) Our belief about an entire category or outgroup as a whole is going to change more after we are exposed to individual cases of that that are viewed as typical rather than atypical We have an insidious contrast effect by if we seen an individual seen as typical and they fit the stereotype, we don’t notice them because of the contrast effect. If we are going to generalize from individual to group, so if we see them, we compare them to other members of the group. But for us to notice, them they have to be atypical. The catch 22 is no individual can be seen as typical and atypical at the same time, therefor nobody can change the stereotype, they are just subcategorized (VERY IMPORTANT) You as an individual to affect a change in a stereotype by anything they do because the masses will either see them as one of them or as atypical and then will not generalize them with the rest of the population, they are subcategorized Ex: beyonce is black Social Facilitation (Ch 12 Group Dynamics) Any performance you are engaged in with others present will change your behavior Facilitate: to help or improve or increase but we are talking about any effect on the performance GOOD OR BAD. Drive theory of social facilitation o Presence of others heighten arousal enhances our tendency to perform dominant responses dominant response correct or incorrect o Dominant response correct Performance enhanced o Dominant response incorrect performance impaired A dominant response would be the most likely behavior o In any situation, you have a dominant response The more people, the more arousal The less people, the less threat Evaluation Apprehension Social Facilitation only takes place when you care what the audience thinks Evaluation apprehension is a probable cause of social facilitation Cockroaches sped up in front of other cockroaches on a track which doesn’t add up to social facilitation because they obviously don’t have an ego Distraction Conflict Model Theory We have the performance with the presence of others can lead to either our tendency to pay attention to the audience OR the tendency to pay attention to the task which results in CONFLICT between the two which increases arousal and leads to social facilitation (VERY IMPORTANT) Used non-social sources of arousal and gotten the same effect such as a distraction during a task Number of people observing also takes place If you have people in the vicinity with you, but they are caught up doing their own task, social facilitation is not seen Its not the presence of other people that leads to arousal o If the other people around you don’t care and are doing their own thing, social facilitation does not occur
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