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Geology 101 : Winds and Desert

by: Natalee Stanton

Geology 101 : Winds and Desert 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > Geology 101 Winds and Desert
Natalee Stanton

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These notes will cover the PowerPoint, the professors lecture, and the answers to the Sample exam questions
Geology 101-017
Class Notes
Geology 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/15/16
GEOL 101 Winds and Deserts   Deserts – regions that receive less than an inch of precipitation o Doesn’t have to do with temperature  ­ Found on every major continent  ­ Found on 1/5 of earth land surface o More than any other geographical environment  ­ Polar regions are another form of desert because of little precipitation because  cold air doesn’t hold a lot of moisture  ­ A dominance of physical weathering   Desert varnish – a weathering veneer formed of  a mixture of clay and iron and  manganese oxides   Desertification – invasion of desert conditions into formerly­ non desert areas  o Contributing factors   Drought  Overpopulation  Land mismanagement  I. Factors in atmosphere circulation  ­ Warm air  o Rises o Holds more water ­ Cold air o Sinks o Holds less water  ­ Land surface change temperature much more rapidly than water surface  ­ Earth is rotating causing a twist in the air circulation  II. Wind (Eolian) – natural flow of air that is typically parallel to the surface of the  earth  o Little surface Wind at the equator, and the air rises, forming clouds and  it rains as it cools.  ­ How wind blows o Tropics – winds blow from the east   These regions have the most desert o Temperate latitudes– winds come from the west  o Coriolis – responsible for the direction of the wind  ­ The amount of material the wind can carry  o Wind strength o Particle size o Surface material   The rate of sand transported by wind increases exponentially with  wind speed   Loess­ a blanket of sediment composed of fine grained particles it is deposited by wind  o Usually  it lacks layers  III. Dust  o Includes some larger silt particles o Includes microscopic  rock and mineral fragments of all kinds, especially  silicate  o Strong winds can’t move larger pebbles o Wind cant erode and transport wet soil  ­ The amount of dust in the atmosphere increases with  o Agriculture o Deforestation o Erosion   Deflation – the process that describes the gradual erosion of the around surface by  wind  o Occurs In dry areas where the vegetation is not abundant      Desert pavement  o A surface of gravel too large for the wind to transported IV. Dunes – given enough sand and wind, any obstacle such as large rock or a clump of vegetation can start a dune o If the wind is too strong, the dunes will stop forming  ­ Sand dunes ­ Form parallel to the wind  o Requires loose sand, strong winds, and dry climate  ­ Downwind migration of dunes o Erosion on the upwind side of dunes and deposition of the sand on the  dune Sample Exam Questions  Which of the following terms describes a curved, coarse­grained sedimentary deposit that  forms on the inside bend of a stream? a. Dune b. Point bar c. Oxbow d. Meander Which of the following processes doesn’t increase the amount of dust in the atmosphere? a. Agriculture b. Deforestation c. Precipitation d. Erosion  For which direction do the trade winds in the tropics blow? A. East B. North C. South D. west


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