US and the Cold War
US and the Cold War PSC 2484
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One Day of Notes
Aaron Delouya Rabinowitz
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Intro to International Affairs
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One Day of Notes
Intro to International Affairs
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2484 at George Washington University taught by Cynthia McClintock in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see Latin American Policy in International Studies at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
US Policy at the Start of the Cold War US amp Latin America Speci cally Mexico Introduction From Cuban Missile Crisis to Now In the 19605 the US39s GDP was 32 times larger than that of Brazil Latin America average of attending secondary school is about 70 now Around 50 in Brazil today US has about 90 of people who graduate from high school Latin American countries have come a long way since the 19605 Today BrazH Proves that things change very quickly Peru GaSton Curio Chff Check if in Anthony Bourdon Soft power episode Holds in uence in Europe Bring Peru con dence in international recognition OAS Can the Latin American countries align Which ones When Greater chance of social cohesion Sense of purpose April Summit of the Americas in Panama Latin American countries said they would not attend unless the US would allow Cuba to attend since Obama39s statements this is now possible and they will be attending China39s Rising Power in Latin America Brazil Cuba Peru Venezuela Player with climate change and economic development Guatemala Eisenhower Ghost of Guatemala39s Past quotOne of the most prehensile acts in its historyquot in 1954 Because it was about to quotfall into communist handsquot 25 years later the Guatemalans have democratic rue And want to respect Jacob Arbenz Washington wanted to overthrow him because of his agrarian reforms Would hand over faow land to deposed peasants To create a middle class United Fruit Company Known by the communist propaganda as the quotoctopusquot However the video points out that it was not oppressive at all to its workers Provided housing Opposed even the midest reform movements An American owned company that owned most of the land Dulles was a lawyer for them prior to being Secretary of State Arbenz said he would compensate the company for its loss Trade was super important About 4 of Latin American trade was with the US 33 of investment in LA was from the US US economic aid was becoming signi cant The USSR39s military and economic presence in LA was virtually nil Stalin was not interested in Latin America at all Nikita Khrushchev was interested However the company told the US that he was a communist Dwight D Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles wanted to strike against Arbenz to roll back communism The phrase roll back was really inspiring to Eisenhower The communist party that backed Arbenz was the smallest part of his coalition The Attack A faux invasion force consisting of a handful of rightwing Guatemalans used face radio broadcasts and a few bombing runs low y American pilots to terrorize the edgling democracy to surrender Arbenz stepped down from the presidency Carlos Castillo colonel took power and handed the lands back to United Fruit The stunted democratic growth in Gualala also set back the free election in Nicaragua El Salvador and Honduras Because they were worried about what Washington would do After the cold war and deals with leftist guerillas in 1996 that genuine democracy began to take hold In 2007 Guatemala had the world39s third highest homicide rate And in 2009 more civilians were murdered in Guatemala than were killed in the war zones of Iraq Blanton went to Guatemala in 1999 Offered a vague apology Timeline 1945 FDR died Truman took power Truman doctrine quotThe US must support free people resisting subjugation by outside pressuresquot D aid to Greece and Turkey But would not overthrow Guatemala or lran 1946 quotIron Curtainquot fell in Europe 1948 Berlin was poised for division 1949 Mao Zedong took power in China 1949 USSR detonated an atomic bomb 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea prompting the Korean War from 19501953 Eisenhower and Latin America quotLatin American countries needed to defer to US leadership p in the momentous confrontation with the Soviet Unionquot Interamerican system had to become an anticommunist alliance In 1953 and 1954 the US believed that the middleclass reform effort in Guatemala and been transformed into a radical political movement That threatened the US strategic a commercial interests Guatemala History of politically repression Caudillos personalist leaders that held sway Ex Jorge UNICCO 19311944 Death penalty for anyone caught union organizing Fled in the aftermath of uprising in 1944 Admired FDR for the New Deal Admired Mexican president Cardenas 1934 1940 for implementing the 1917 constitution After UNICCO came Juan Jose Arevalo Fair election of literate males 1945 Arevalo Extended franchise to all adults Abolished forced labor Sanctioned minimum wages Redistributed the land con scated from Germans during the war Established Social Security Peaceful transition of power Pledged to relate an economically independent modern and capitalist state Built ports and highways Agrarian reform In 1952 expropriate uncultivated portions of latifundias and the land Landowners would be compensated Was designed to create a nation no individual land owners like the Homestead Act United Fruit Company Ally of the UNICCO regime Denied workers their collective bargaining right granted by Arevalo Owned land 85 of which was uncultivated 65 had to be cultivated to be exempt from the agrarian reform Eisenhower rand the State Department did not consider deferred payment in the form of agrarian bonds as constituting prompt and effective compensation to the company In 1954 the State Department on behalf of United Fruit handed a bill for 15854849 for the rst 200000 acres of land expropriated The State Department believed it was dealing with ruthless agents of international communism However the only intrusion of foreign ideals had bene political ideas of the West such as freedom of association Communists did not dominate Guatemala He did not appoint any communist to his cabinet Nor did Guatemala exchange diplomatic representatives with the USSR Both Truman and Eisenhower repeated instructed Guatemalan leaders to sever all relationships with Guatemalan communists Ex 1954 Eisenhower told Foreign Minister Guillermo Toriello that he quotcouldn39t help a government which was openly playing ball with communistsquot Toriello could never get a meeting with Eisenhower To which Toriello replied that they were a democracy And quotcommunist could be controlled best in the openquot Communist parties existed in Latin America because they had played such an active role in ghting the Nazis in World War II Some in State said that quotGuatemalan communists are in fact disciple agents of international communist preaching authentic sovietdictated doctrinequot Others said that Arbenz was a political pragmatics not an ideologue Eisenhower did not distinguish between Latin American communists In 1951 after Arbenz would not denounce communist America refused to help Guatemala complete the interAmerican highway Also refused to approve the sale of arms to the Guatemalan military According to Ambassador to Guatemala Rudolf E Schoenfeld the goal was quotto bring Guatemalans to the realization that they were depended upon the US 1953 The US went on a campaign to convince 19 other Latin American countries that Guatemala was a threat OAS H 1953 Places an anticommunist resolution the agenda for the Caracas conference Rio Treaty of 1947 Which allowed for the OAS to take action in a 23 majority to pose economic sanction or to sponsor a collective intervention The OAS in 1953 referenced this and Eisenhower wanted them to use it quotLatin Americans would not only receive at Caracas an education about communism but would also be tested on their hostility to itquot But the US had technically a nonintervention pledge quotGiven to the relatively weak Latin American states an important voice in deterring steps for the protection of US security interestquot Tenth InterAmerican Conference Held in Caracas Venezuela March 1 1954 March 28 1954 Was supposed to focus on economic issues Eisenhower said the cold war concerns took priority over interAmerican economic cooperation Costa Rica refused to attend because it was held in a dictator39s capital and they were strongly anticommunist The Truman administration has declined to back a strictly anticommunist resolution the Eisenhower administration admitted to itself that dictators might misuse the Caracas resolution Some argue that the Eisenhower administration was more worried about Guatemala because they are so close to the Panama canal But the resolution passed Only to be opposed by Guatemala Made the US more suspicious Privately the administration understood that the meaning of Caracas was the US could never convince Latin Americans to boycott or invade Guatemala Toriello averred that the issue was United Fruit not communism Keep in mind that the communism being espoused is not that of the USSR per say but that communists were meeting in Mexico not traveling off to the Soviet Union Also believed that the best way to undermine communism was through social and economic progress Allegiance of Latin America to the nonintervention principle became even more apparent as the Guatemalan crisis intensi ed May 1954 Guatemala received a shipment of arms for the Sovietdominated Czechoslovakia This is interesting in contrast to the fact that the USSR was such a minor part of the LA economy US practically forced the market to the USSR US had Dulles put together a case against Guatemala to present to the OAS US propose that the OAS condemn Guatemala But only 11 nation would actually possibly agree Short of the 23 majority needed Uruguay was seen as the sturdiest democracy in the south and it could not be counted on June 26 1954 One day before Jacob Arbenz fell from power WE and 10 LA states requested an emergency meeting of foreign ministers Eisenhower invoked article 51 of the UN Charter only backed by right wing dictatorships Guatemala had complained to the Security Council that outside forces based in Nicaragua and Honduras were invading its territory and had received a sympathetic hearing from three permanent members the USSR France and the UK And then Jacob Arbenz was thrown Had he not been before the OAS meeting the US as well as Guatemala would have been on trial The Overthrow Eisenhower loved covert operations Started working with the CIA in 1953 on Arbenz PBSUCCESS quotTake selective aggressive actions of a limited scope involving moderately increased risks of general war to eliminate Soviet dominate areas within the free word and to reduce Soviet power in the satellite peripheryquot The president the Dulles brothers one secretary of state the other in charge of the b undersecretary smith and special assistant for NSA Robber Cutler were intimately aware of all the details Wanted to turn the Guatemalan military against Arbenz Tried to demoralized military so they wouldn39t be as faithful to Arbenz US refused to sell arms But armed the neighbors of Honduras and Nicaragua Lieutenant coone Carlos Castillo Aromas an army of cer in exile crossed the border from Honduras Trained by CIA he and his 200 men quotMore dependent upon psychological impact than military strengthquot Clever use of radio broadcasting from Honduras Gave the impression that ghting was intense and widespread Pilots bombed the capitol city to create chaos and add to hysteria The airstrikes are what convinced the top of cers in the army that were unwilling to defend Arbenz but unimpressed by Castillo Aromas that the US was determined to oust their president Motivations Remain a subject of debate PBSUCCESS was activated a month after Guatemala received arms from the Soviet bloc But Guatemala said that since no one else would sell they had to buy them from the USSR to defend against Castio Aromas So was it abut communism Or United Fruit Senator William Fulbright of Arkansas would become the leading critic of Eisenhower39s Latin American policy But he approved of the CIA intervention Revolutions and Attributions Making Sense of Eisenhower Policies in Bolivia and Guatemala Late summer of 1953 Imitated a covert plan to overthrow the communistbacked revolutionary government in Guatemala Two state department announcements concerning Bolivar bracketed that decision Similarities between Guatemala and Bolivia Both advanced similar modernizing reform programs Both drew support from analogous coalitions of disgruntled workers the urban middle class and peasants Both rejected political elitism sociological eurocentrism and exportoriented economic liberalism reminded them of oligarchies Both wanted to enfranchise new rising classes And to further integrate peasants into society Assistant Secretary of State for InterAmerican Affairs John Moors Cabot The only one to comment on the fact that despite Bolivia s similarities to Guatemala we were only ousting Guatemala and supporting Bolivia He believed that Guatemala was operating more openly with communism than Bolivia So he could argue that Bolivia was committed to true social progress however Cabot s predecessor Edward Miller felt that the Kremlin39s presence in the area was waning Differences between Guatemala and Bolivia True that the crucial distinction in the minds of US officials was communism However historians believe this was America misreading Guatemala Three factors according to historian Zunes 1 The ability of the US to exert economic or diplomatic pressure 2 The perceived in uence of prosoviet forces 3 The availability of alternative leaders friendlier to the United States Another historian Schultz argues that US officials ignore Latin America until there is a crisis and then they ask two questions why the instability and how does this affect American security Arbenz was seen with communists but it was exaggerated how close he was to communism He did come to more and more identify as communists But he was never near vaulting Guatemala across the iron curtain Long before Eisenhower came to of ce the US of cials were attributing problems in Guatemala to communists le Richard Patterson ambassador proposed the 39duck testquot if it quacks like a duck and swims like a duck then it is a duck Same with communism Problem with this of course is that there are different forms of communism And being communist does not necessarily guarantee support from the kremlin Bolivia Possibly more surprising that we were tolerant towards Bolivia given the McCarthyism hysteria of the time April 1952 rebellion that brought MNR to power in Bolivia Movement Nationalist Revolutionaries Supported by labor unions and 23 of the country s Marxists factions The nal blow of the revolution to the governing military junta cam when mires seized an army supply train outside of La Paz and distributed the arms to rebels Generals had to ee to Peru The new president Victor Paz Estenssoro Had been called everything from quotthe no1 Nazi of the Americaquot to quota communist of the rightquot Called for the quotDuck Testquot ambassador Patterson So what happened to guilt by association They also knew that labor leaders communist backed and created policy in the MNR government However the embassy in Bolivia described La Paz as not particularly communist Said that his Marxists inclination are of a personal nature and only used as an intellectual tool to grapple with problems related to development in Bolivia Reconstruction Finance Cooperation In March 1953 it announced it no longer wanted to discuss a longterm contract to buy Bolivian tin Would go to Texas Bolivian antipathy toward the US grew 0 On the anniversary of the revolution one year the government criticizes US policy as an attack on legitimate national aspirations Remember this would be 1953 we reinforced aid to Bolivia in 1954 around the time we were kicking out the Guatemalan president Arbenz according to the Cabot statement In response to this Paz announced that the government would be opening relations with Czechoslovakia and would seek new tin markets behind the Iron Curtain Similar to how Guatemala had to receive arms from USSR because they had no other market options to export to So then the US developed an aid package to keep Paz in power Makes me think they had no other viable candidates to replace him with Guatemala vs Bolivia US was supportive of reform so long as it wasn t accompanied by strong anti American sentiment And while Bolivia had been upset with America they were bought back Needed to prove to Guatemala that it did depend on the US This was the goal under reforms with both Arevalo and Arbenz ln Guatemala US officials attributed nationalist reforms attacks on private capital and ts of antiAmerican pique to the dispositional manipulation of communist in ltrates and the predisposition of Arbenz toward unfriendliness These same qualities in Bolivia were attributed to poverty underdevelopment and political mobilization that is accompanies a revolution ln Guatemala the economic interests were the primary concern The UFCO was the symbol of Guatemala39s depend on foreign capital and foreign markets It was the country s leading employer Henry Cabot Lodge s family owned stocked in UFCO Refer back to his writings in History of Diplomacy He was strongly for intervening in Latin America against European interests and soviet interests He was for intervention in Cuba helping them revolt l he was for this too Always about economic interests Arbenz remained cautious but those around him used strong antiUFCO and antiAmerican rhetoric still listening to the PGT communist party His relationship with his party was very different from Paz Paz in Bolivia did not have to balance the left to a still powerful right the ghtcoHapsed Which kept the US from panicking Threat of communism came from outside the core Relations in Guatemala continued to deteriorate quotFine line between nationalist reforms form communist agitators was so ne that the distinguishing factor was often the effect of reform on US interestsquot Zimmerman 1953 February Arbenz seized the rst of the expropriated UFCO properties under his land reform When it was called unconstitutional he had those judges impeached not unusual for LA but it worried the US Other concerns of 1953 Moment of silence for Stalin39s death Condoned protests supporting Julius and Ethel Rosenberg The issues of communism antiAmericanism and attacks on US private interests were increasing 1953 threats to Asian tin supplies easing as the Korean War wound own anthem US stockpiles rapidly ling that US of cials were forced to confront the Bolivian dilemma squarely So the US government authorized the RFC tin buyer in Texas to announce canceling discussion in bolivar 0 Without tin revenues Bolivia would drift into chaos 0 And then in spring of 1953 the Eisenhower administration confronted the implications of its decision to end negotiation on a longterm tin contract with the Bolivians and it began to work on an aid package Milton Eisenhower president39s brother who went on a good will tour of South America with Cabot believed Bolivia to be authentically reformist and Guatemala to be authentically communist This caught the ear of the president Humphrey secretary of treasury for Eisenhower not Hubert Humphrey later up of LBJ and political opponent of Nixon this is George Humphrey He suggested that the president reject the tin contract on scal ground and fought the assistance package from the outset Didn39t want to bail out the MNR But Eisenhower39s brother and Cabot won out quotPresident said it would be better to have tin in fort Knox than goldquot and then the solarium exercise was put into place The coordinated efforts of Guatemalans and radio signals that convinced top of cials they were losing there were more revolutionary men than there were 0 At the time that Eisenhower is engaging the operation solarium he is also ousting the regime of Mosadeggh in Iran for oil in the 1953 coup d39 tat 0 Similar story to Guatemala lran wanted to nationalize oil not good for the IranianAnglo oil company now known as BP 0 Put MohammadReza Shah Pahlavi and the Shah of Iran until his overthrow in 1979 By October 1953 the plans for both Guatemala and Bolivia had solidi ed Paz and Eisenhower formalized plans for aid December shipments of food was on its way Meanwhile letter send to Arbenz quotthat read more like a legal brief for UFCOquot Then Purifoy became ambassador after Patterson to Guatemala and he con rmed that there were contingency plans to overthrow the government In 1954 the US spent near identical sums to support Paz and overthrow Arbenz After the 1954 coup in Guatemala Cabot39s successor as the assistant secretary of interAmerican affairs Henry Holland set out to make Guatemala a showcase of utmost cooperation with countries that demonstrate freedom over communism Meanwhile in 1954 bolivar the US pressured the MNR to oust communist factions form the government and to change party positions In 1956 and 1957 the US mandated stability plan that drove a wedge between the MNR center and its liberal left Thus weakening the party coalition Undermining it39s populate appeal Effectively ending the revolution So in 1955 Holland could inform Dulles CIA director Allen unclear if him or his brother could be Secretary of State Dulles Guatemala and Bolivia were safe until VP Nixon on his May trip in 1958 and the Cuban revolution in early 1959
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