PSYC 160, Week 14 Notes
PSYC 160, Week 14 Notes PSYC 160
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Chapter Twelve Continued 04/11/16 1. Alfred Kinsey a. Kinsey’s Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale was considered controversial, particularly in the United States b. Controversy over how he got his numbers (prostitutes and prison population) 2. Freud and Sexual Orientation a. Believed non-heterosexuality is not a form of restive psychosexuality 3. Non-heterosexuality Origins a. Over 450 animal species engage in same sex relationships, including penguins i. Two male penguins in Germany hatched and raised an egg together b. Scientists are finding biological links to sexuality i. In the 2ndto 5 month of pregnancy, the fetus is exposed to hormones, which determine the sex and found that males who are exposed to female hormones grow up to like males c. A link has been found between sexuality and the hypothalamus i. Heterosexual males hypothalamus’ were found to be 2x larger than that of gay males ii. Their research was flawed, because they studied cadavers that had mostly died from HIV related complications d. Belief that we are born with a specific sexual orientation i. Used MRIs and PET Scans for a detailed analysis of gay, lesbian, and straight individuals ii. Found that gay men have brains strikingly similar to that of straight women iii. Lesbian women have brains similar to that of straight males, where the right hemisphere is larger than the left hemisphere iv. These differences originate in the womb during pregnancy e. Fraternal Birth Order Effect i. There’s a correlation between a man’s sexual orientation and number of older brothers he has ii. Each additional older brother increases odds by 33% that the younger brother will be gay iii. A study on adopted kids found that fraternal birth order effect wasn’t due to social causes, but biological causes iv. Caused by maternal immunological response to male tissue left over from previous pregnancies 1. Mother is fighting with H-Y antigen, which is only produced in males 4. Non-heterosexuality a. Appears to run in families b. Study found that identical twins were more likely to each be gay/lesbian or straight and less likely to be one of each c. Being homosexual is not a result of being raised by same sex couple or single, homosexual parent d. Having a domineering mother does produce a gay son e. Researchers found that they could turn straight worms gay by altering a single gene i. If sexual orientation is genetically wired worms, it’s likely to be the same for humans, but more likely to be a variety of genes f. If we were able to test a genetic link to sexuality in the womb, it would lead to increased abortion rates 5. Bisexuality a. Researchers argue that bisexuality is just a phase b. One longitudinal study looked at females in their late teens to early 20s who claimed to be bisexual i. Found that some women were authentically bisexual, even 10 years later ii. 10 years later, 89% of bisexuals considered themselves to be bisexual and the rest had taken on the identity of heterosexual or lesbian. More bisexuals were found to be in a relationship. c. Common myths about bisexuality: i. They’re more promiscuous ii. Don’t get gay bashed iii. It’s just a phase d. Bisexuals are more likely to experience increased depression and poorer mental health than homosexual and straight people 6. Transgender a. Transgender is not about sexuality, it’s about identity b. Often know from an early age that they’re in the wrong body 7. Intersex or Hermaphrodites a. A person who is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn't seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male. i. An example of this is a male born with 2 X chromosomes and 1 Y b. Infants are born with ambiguous genitalia c. Turner syndrome – a chromosomal disorder in which a female is born with only one X chromosome; have no ovaries or testes and will usually be raised as girls i. Treatment: hormone therapy during puberty to help with the development of second sex characteristics 8. How do heterosexuals adapt to homosexual society? a. Homophobia – fear or lack of education when it comes to homosexuality i. Solution: educate yourself ii. One study suggests that having a homosexual acquaintance will help to overcome homophobic feelings b. Heterosexism – discrimination or prejudice by heterosexuals against homosexuals i. Includes hate crimes (like Mathew Shepard), discriminatory laws, denial of adoption or access to dying partner, refusal to hire them, gay males are unable to donate blood ii. Murder rates have increased in transgender male to female iii. In the Middle East, gays are put to death iv. If you are found to be gay or know someone who is gay, you will get life in prison in Uganda 9. Impact on Development a. Higher rates of depression, anxiety, and suicide b. Internalized homophobia – the involuntary belief by lesbians/gays that the homophobic lies, stereotypes, and myths about them (that are delivered to everyone in a heterosexist / homophobic society) are true Chapter Thirteen Friends and Family 04/13/16 1. Parenthood a. Changes in a marriage will occur with introduction of the first infant b. Parenthood results in period of least marital happiness, especially for females and gets worse with each child c. Solutions: i. Balance. Each parent needs to pitch in. ii. Communication iii. Remind your partner of your affection iv. See your issues as solvable v. Schedule dates d. Having a child will not fix a relationship e. Raising children causes marital stress i. A study of 200,000 couples in 86 countries found that couples with kids were generally less happy than couples without kids f. Marital happiness decreases with the first child and each subsequent one after that g. In the U.S., ¼ of all families are headed by a single parent h. ½ a million live births per year are to teen girls 2. Impact of Divorce on Kids a. Immediately following divorce, both parents and kids have psychological problems i. Kids will often experience anxiety, sleep and eating complications b. Children will often blame themselves and feel pressured to choose a side/parent c. Parents should get along for the sake of the children. d. Important to actually show up to visitations. 3. Blended Family a. 5 million remarried people have at least one stepchild living with them b. Role ambiguity – uncertainty about expected behavior for a position or role c. The younger a kid is, the better their chances are to adapting to the stepparent d. The new spouse needs to be able to lay down consequences or else the child will walk all over the stepparent 4. Race and Family a. African Americans tend to rely more on extended family. Grandmothers are often the head of the household i. Same goes for Hispanic and Latino families b. Asian Americans are from a collectivist culture and will put their family before the individual c. Research shows that kids raised by two moms fair the best 5. Diversity of Adult Lifestyles (Chapter 12) a. Single females, who are approaching 30, often begin to feel pressure about having kids i. Their biological clock is ticking ii. Their parents want grandchildren b. 5% of all individuals, 65 and older, have never been married i. Have less difficulty coping with loneliness c. Cohabitation – living together i. Couples who live together prior to getting married increase their chances of getting divorced ii. People often won’t live together or divorce due to religious reasons iii. 1 out of 10 relationships with people living together won’t last past 5 years d. Married adults i. Average age that males marry is 27 and 25 for females ii. Average length of a marriage is 7 years 6. Communication is Key a. Opposites attract, but do not last b. Need to see other half as a friend, respect each other, remember that it’s okay to disagree, and have conflict resolution skills c. Happily married couples live longer than unhappily married couples. Unhappy couples have a greater risk of getting sick. d. In late adulthood, men are more likely to be married (74%) i. 47% of females will be married e. Research shows that kids who smile a lot are likely to grow up to have a happier marriage with a 11% divorce rate i. Unsmiling, somber individuals have a 31% divorce rate 7. Divorce a. 50% of all first marriages end in divorce b. The divorce rate has decreased over the years, because people are choosing not to get married c. The divorce rate for 2 , 3 , 4 marriages is 70%, because they didn’t work on themselves and what led to first divorce d. People from lower socioeconomic status have higher rates of divorce due to money issues e. In the case of marriages due to pregnancy, only half of the mothers were found to be living with the father 5 years later 8. Reasons for Divorce a. Males i. She was cheating ii. Different values and lifestyles iii. Not in love anymore b. Females i. He was cheating ii. Abuse (physical, verbal) iii. Alcohol or drug abuse c. Women also list bad sex as a reason for divorce i. Many women are unhappy with their sex lives, because needs are not being met and they don’t feel satisfied sexually and/or emotionally ii. Those who were not faking orgasms were not necessarily happy either iii. 63% of married women would rather watch a movie, read a book or sleep rather than have sex with their husbands d. More women are also cheating than ever before e. In the last 20 years, infidelity rates for men has risen 20 to 28% and 5 to 15% for women i. This is due to advances in technology f. On average, men and women will remarry within 2-5 years, but men tend to remarry quicker
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