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The Case of Chile

by: Amaris Mae

The Case of Chile PSC 2484

Amaris Mae
GPA 3.75
Latin American Policy
Cynthia McClintock

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About this Document

These are the notes dealing with US policy towards Chile in the 1970's. It includes all notes on all the additional readings (so you don't have to read them!) and lecture notes.
Latin American Policy
Cynthia McClintock
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2484 at George Washington University taught by Cynthia McClintock in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Latin American Policy in International Studies at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 02/10/15
The Case of Chile 19701973 The US and USSR in LA after the Cuban Missile Crisis Trying to win back soft power and prevent quotanother Cubaquot JFK launches the Alliance for Progress NK is discredited and in 3964 Leonid Brezhnev takes over leadership of the USSR Angry ate USSR39s snub during the missile crisis Fidel Castro and Chee Guevara try to foment violent guerrilla focus in other LA countries A worried USSR argues for the peaceful road to socialism Big divisions within communist ideologies Based on how to come to power USSR wanted to quotgo slowquot quotpeaceful road to socialismquot Castro did not agree Foci Theory revolution was held by a tiny amount of people Not the whole middle class Alliance encouraged democracy economic growth and social reform New democratic center in LA quotmore money for Latin Americaquot Kennedy Promised 20billion dollars US aid tripled in the 19505 14 billion a year but 10 billion was going to the Marshall plan Even wanted agrarian reform Probably the only time the US would ever do something to hurt the wealthy in LA Eduardo Frei President of Chile 1964 1970 A president cannot immediately succeed himself herself But you can run again after a gap Six year term Christian Democrat He would have been able to unite them with the right if given the opportunity later in the 1976 He wants to be this model Alliance for Progress president He even launches agrarian reform Pisses off elites The left critized his failure to move against US copper companies and the right critics his agrarian reform Lots of contension Cuba in 1967 1968 Che is assassinated in 1967 Bolivian government wanted him out ClA helped Castro then endorsed the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia nad the ties between the USSR and Cuba are strengthened Cuba provided the USSR many bene ts Sugar And USSR provided oil Cuba gives 1 billion a year to Cuba Does cuba affect how the USSR sees Allende or how Allende sees the USSR USSR Diplomatic relations with LA were increasing USSR built embassies etc USSR was focused on military power Interest to Peru but not many others USSR traded mostly with communist countries And very little with LA Overall USSR aid to LA was 50 million a year 6 of all Soviet Aid Argentina and Brazil sold a lot of grain to the USSR But other than that the economies were not very compatible D tente begin in 1969 Nixon takes power Don t want another missile crisis Going to try to work together Not increasing military capabilities Paci c Alliance Peru Chile Mexico and Columbia Track I and Track II Nixon Kissinger and Helms Wanted to get Frei elected With new elections Tried to launch a coup in 1970 Didn39t work Wanted to kidnap Rene Schneider Was kidnapped and killed by another group Chileans rallied around Allende Allende Nationalized the US owned copper companies And not compensate them But actually said they owed him money Price of copper was falling March 1973 elections were free and fair Friendly with Castro and visited the USSR in Dec 1972 USSR saw him and his consolidation of power as weak Because he had to accommodate for the other powersin uences September 11 1973 Kissinger quotwe didn39t do it but we helped create the conditionsquot Between 1970 and 1973 the CIA spent 8 million for destabliziation Ex march of the empty pot s Athough the CIA did not plot with Chile39s military it knew that the coup was imminent and welcomed it as Chileans were aware that it would Devine Before the coup no supplies after they had basic groceries etc Shows how Kissinger created the conditions all the sanctions etc so people were for the coup just so they could have coffee and food again Pinochet Killed all enemies Anyone that had supported Allende No prisoners Kissinger and Pinochet Organizational Incompetence Most reading were referring to the ideological threat Not as much of a strategic threat Allende was not exporting the revolution So many of the people were not on board with the coup That39s why so many people were left out of the info Because Nixon and Kissinger didn39t think they would have the support She believes that a lot of this was due to the Nixon administration itself Wouldn t have happened under another president How America Overthrew a Paci st President Sept 11 1973 bombs from Britishmade Hawker Hunterjets pounded the presidential palace La Moneta in Santiago Childe Nixon CIA operation Fu belt CIAbacked coup to kill Chilean President Salvador Allende remember this is after the Arbenz coup and after Bay of Pigs Kennedy Bobby as AG had tried Operation Mongoose to get rid of Castro and bring Cuban communism to its knees Four years later LBJ is trying to stop the quotpesky revolutionaryquot regime of PresidentJuan Bosch in the DR Allende was followed by Pinochet ruled for 17 years Executed Allende loyalists Pinochet even blew up Allendes Ambassador Orlando Likelier with his American assistant on the streets of Washington Even Nixon in the midst of Watergate worked with Kissinger to take down Allende Allende had even called the Cuban regime quottoo violentquot Against armed struggle Socialism with Red Wine Moscow and Chile39s Popular Unity Experiment Salvador Allende was Marxist and led the Popular Unity front in 1970 Won on Sept 3 Moscow used the Chilean outcome to ght its ideological battles but it did not want to be directly associated with Chile Very cautious Castro vowed his support of the Chileans on the 10 year anniversary of Bay of Pigs Chile wasn39t given as much money by the Soviets as other communist nations Especially not as much as Cuba Got about 350 million Argentina got 600 million Four Reasons for the lack of Support 1 The inauguration of Allende happened at the height of d tente with Nixon 2 Used the 911 coup to say that it would be less likely for US to intervene in LA affairs during a period of cooperation it was de ned as socialism not communism 3 Noncompatible economies between USSR and Chile a Chile was struggling economically needed someone to buy their copper US had stopped but it still wasn t a sound investment for Russia 4 Instability of the Allende government a Although the communists had been growing steadily in the ranks of government since 1920 so it may not have been as unstable as it appeared to Moscow b But the USSR wanted to see more control of the Psych over the Popular Unity i Communism and socialist relations in Chile is the one of intense rivalry and only uneasy cooperation ii But they were most concerned with Allende39s failure to secure power beyond the executive base quotworking class has not yet assumed full powerquot Allende39s primary goals had been to separate from the US And while that meant cooperation with the Soviets it also meant he had to rely on the Popular Unity39s connections with socialist countries By 1972 the popular unity was losing some control economy was not going in their favor And in order to stop a revolt Allende had to work even closer with them Separating him further from the Kremlin 1972 nancial crisis Chinese help bail out Chile Put pressure on USSR for not helping Chile However the Chinese weren39t the biggest fans of Marxism as opposed to Maoism but they liked that Allende was antiimperialist But even they saw him as weak won the government but not the power In 1972 although Allende has said at the beginning of his term he didn39t expect as much help from the USSR as Cuba had received he did now Daughter was married to a Cuban information of cer who told them about the USSR resources Allende went to the USSR in Dec 1972 Came back with a few promises of aid Not enough to satisfy the Chilean people who were going through a coppercnsE Devine What really happened in Chile Coup would be headed off by the military And begin at 7 am on the Sept 11 Nixon was told The carabineers Chile39s national police were responsible for seizing the president This author doesn39t believe that the US played a crucial war but that it was done by the peoplepolice of Chile The US did help launch an earlier coup against Allende Nixon and CIA director Richard Helms Tried to stop Allende from taking office in 1970 Mistake the military wanted no part and the people were not supportive of blocking Allende Especially as a group of retired military of cers who the CIA knew about tried to kidnap General Rene Schneider commander in chief other Chilean army who did not want to coup but they killed him by accident so the whole country rallied behind Allende against American aggression El Mercutio a newspaper that the CIA worked with Wouldn39t come out directly against the government but highlighted stories of government property seizure etc CIA met only with the business side of the paper weren39t allowed to enter their own stories But then the government in 1971 forbade el Mercutio from printing news Pots and Pans protest Women Protesting the scarcity of food Were attacked by leftist students Images of the young attacking the poor elderly women spanned the globe Truckers strike With US CIA support although the Ambassador to Chile Nathaniel Davis opposedit Because of the publicprivate transport operation in the Aisne region Am nationalized their industry Allende killed himself rather than be taken prisoner Although the military meant only to capture them Hersch Nixon and Kissinger Kissinger saw Allende as being a great threat than Castro Nixon didn39t see it this way but he did see the failing of his corporate benefactors Jay Parkinson Harold Geneen and Donald Kendall Kissinger39s fear was that Allende would work with the democratic process That a communist could get elected rightly would send a wrong message to Italians and leave the US with less reasons for dispute Rube Goldberg gambit They wanted Frei to run again If Alessandri could get into congress he would resigned as president forcing another popular election in Chile And Frei had support of the Christian Democratic Party And CIA could help him win But Frei could not win the nomination of his own part y Two Track Approach Track I try to stop Allende from getting elected AntiAllende propaganda Political programs voted by the 40 committee and relayed to Kory State and Huckster Track II the coup incase Allende won to be initiated before he took of ce Secret CIA agents Wanted the military to engage the coup


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