Genetics week 13 notes
Genetics week 13 notes Bios 206
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Sehnert on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bios 206 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Christensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biological Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
WEEK 13 MONDAY Chapter 22 People with diabetes are now injecting human insulin instead of bovine insulin. Thanks GMOs Human insulin • Synthetic human insulin was originally made in bacteria with recombinant DNA technology • Now it is made in mammal cultured cells Making proteins in bacterial hosts • Problems like inability to process and modify many euk proteins correctly • Euk hosts now used for making therapeutic euk proteins o Yeast is the go to for this • Vaccines are a good use of biotechnology • Submunit vaccines made of 1+ surface proteins from virus or bacteria have been made possible by genetic engineering o Hep B cloned in yeast, purified in yeast, and made into vaccine o Gardasil: immune from HPV • Before genetic engineering, modifying genetic makeup of plants and snimals to enhance food production was restricted to selective breading o Selection and breeding either natural or mutagen-induced variants o Maize: 5 mutations changed to make hard part on the inside and soft on the outside • Reasons to make transgenic crops o Improve growth characteristics and yield culturally valuable crops o Increase nutritional value of crops o Provide crop resistance against insect and viral pests, drought, and herbicides o Cows get a disease and now we have selected for more resistance to this Diagnostics • People can be genetically tested • Pathogens or tumor cells can b tested for traits that might affect treatment Mutation that causes the autosomal recessive sickle cell disease also changes the Ddel restriction enzyme site What bands will show up in a carrier? a. 1150 and 200 b. 1350 c. 1350 and 1150 and 200 d. no bands e. Spinal Tap RFLP – Why is southern blotting a bad technique? Need a lot more DNA than in PCR. Not very fast Don’t use RFLP diagnosis anymore Can find the right temp where the sequence you want will hybridize, but the one you don’t want wont ASO for Limitation of ASO testing a. More than one mutation may cause the disease, but screen is limited by which alleles are tested b. Only deletions can be screened with ASO testing c. Only test exons d. Produces lots of false positives because similarity of sequences e. Larry harshman Microarrays • Hybridize RNA old. Now transcriptomics • Look at what people with disease have that normals don’t have o Things that are homozygous or repeated are what causes disease FRIDAY Autosomal STR DNA Profiling • STR similar to VNTRs, but repeated and shorter • Small samples of DNA simplified in PCR, can create DNA profiles • Hundreds of STR loci • Probability calculation chart (picture) o Multiply the probabilities of each if want to find hetero prob. Person is homo for D5S818. Whats the probability that the person will be homo? a. 13.03 = .361*.361 Single-Nucleotide polymorphisms • single nucleotide differences between 2 DNA molecules: base changes, insertions, or deletions • Occur randomly throughout genome • Forensic SNP profiling involves only 1 nucleotide of DNA molecule Does a match in DNA profiles between a suspect and evidence from a crime scene mean a person is guilty of that crime? a. Depends on the odds b. No, doesn’t prove it, but could be possible perpetrator c. Yes, only 1 person can match d. Depends on how much DNA was collected. If there are only trace amts, you cannot be sure e. Yes, as long as one Prosecutor’s fallacy • Equates guilt with numerical probability derived from one piece of evidence • Human error, contamination, or tampering must be taken into account • DNA profiles must be interpreted in context of all evidence in a case • DNA evidence is more powerful in showing innocence, not guilt. Easier to prove its not true DNA Profile Database • FBI maintains both state and federal DNA profile databases • Entire system and tools known as CODIS and has 2 main databases • Convicted offender database contains DNA profiles from individuals convicted of certain crime • Forensic database contains profiles from crime scene evidence