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Electrochemistry (cont.)

by: Phillip Fishbein

Electrochemistry (cont.) Chem 1220(Chemistry, Dr. Clark, General Chemistry)

Phillip Fishbein
GPA 3.722

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of Electrochemistry after Intro to Electrochemistry. This includes Voltaic Cells, Electrolytic Cells, and the relationships between E, G, and K/Q.
General Chemistry
Dr. Clark
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phillip Fishbein on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1220(Chemistry, Dr. Clark, General Chemistry) at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Clark in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.

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Date Created: 04/15/16
Voltaic (Galvanic) Cells o Two nodes in solutions connected by wire/voltmeter  Solutions contain ions of the respective nodes  Solutions connected by “salt bridge” o Reduction occurs at the CATHODE  Solution contains ion form of cathode  Gains mass from solution o Oxidation occurs at the ANODE  Solution contains ion form of anode  Loses mass to solution o Electrons flow from anode through the wire to the cathode o Electric Potential  Ecell E ocathodeEoanode Volts  Get values from standard reduction table  No flipping of sign or multiplying by coefficients  Standard Reduction Potential is an intensive property o Cell Notation  Anode | Anode solution ([M]) || Cathode solution ([M]) | Cathode o Salt Bridge  Soluble salt in bridge between solutions  Positive ion moves to cathode solution as reaction progresses  Negative ion moves to anode solution as reaction progresses o Voltaic/Galvanic Cells, when connected, move electrons spontaneously o Standard Hydrogen Electrode  Usually a reference electrode  Test tube with H (g) at 1 atm and platinum wire 2  Can act as cathode or anode  pH of solution changes as reaction progresses o Relating Standard Cell Potential, Standard Free Energy Change, and Equilibrium Constant o  Positive E iodicates spontaneous process  Negative E indicates nonspontaneous process V∗mole −¿ mole =96485 J  ¿ o o ' C ∆ G =−nFE ;F=Farada y sconstant=96485 ¿ o  ∆ G =−RT lnK (provided onexam) o RT  E = nF lnK(not provided onexam)  n in these equations is the # of electrons transferred in the balanced equation  Derivation of last equation  Substitute left side of equation 1 with right side of equation 2 o  Solve for E o Non-Standard Conditions  Nernst Equation E=E −o RT lnQ(providedonexam)  nF  Q changes as the cell operates  E changes as the cell operates  E = 0 at equilibrium o Q = K o Can be used to find equation 3 above  Increasing concentration of the anode solution increases E  Increasing concentration of the cathode solution decreases E  Increasing mass of solid does not affect E o Cell Potential and Current  Potential difference between anode and cathode called electromotive force (emf)  Measured in Volts o Volts = Joules / Coulombs (J/C)  Current is measured in amperes  Amperes = Coulombs / second (C/s)  Rate of electric flow  Can run current through molten solutions of salts to isolate the elements  Discovery of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals  Electrolysis (Electrolytic Cell)  Adding electrons to a solution  Has negative cell potential o Work has to be applied to make the reaction occur o Voltage applied to cell must be greater than the magnitude of the cell potential for the reaction to occur  Electroplating o Both electrodes in same solution connected to a battery o Used to plate cathode with anode o Forces electrons to leave anode and enter the cathode o Opposite logic as Galvanic Cell o Solution should match the anode o Cathode and Anode determined by how they are connected o Used to protect materials such as iron  Zinc is easier to oxidize than iron, so covers iron with zinc to protect it from oxidizing  Cover with silver to keep it from oxidizing Silver resists oxidation because it is more favorable to be in solid form


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