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PSYC 1000 - Week 13 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 13 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 13 Notes
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About this Document

Lecture and Textbook notes
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 04/15/16
PSYC 1000 Week 13 Notes ­ April 11­15 Depression ­ Biological factors ­ Genetic predisposition ­ Tends to run in families ­ Lack of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine ­ Release more stress hormones than others ­ Psychological and social factors ­ Neuroticism ­ Learned helplessness, external locus of control ­ Perfectionism ­ Negative explanatory style ­ Lack self­serving bias ­ Stress Bipolar disorder: experiencing extreme moods out of proportion to events of life ­ Manic depression ­ Mania: highly agitated emotional state ­ Emotion: euphoria or irritability ­ Cognition: optimism, poor judgment, grandiosity ­ Behavior: hyperactivity, insomnia, talkativeness, recklessness ­ Genetic predisposition, stress Schizophrenia ­ Characteristics ­ Disordered and irrational thoughts and ideas ­ Distorted perceptions, psychosis ­ Inappropriate emotions and behaviors ­ Major symptoms ­ Hallucinations, usually auditory ­ Delusions: thoughts and beliefs inconsistent with reality ­ Persecution: belief that other people are out to get them ­ Grandeur: exaggerated belief in their own importance ­ Ideas of reference: believe that random events have personal  relevance ­ Disorganized thinking and speech ­ Lack selective attention ­ Emotional disturbances  ­ Inappropriate emotions ­ Flat affect: showing little emotion ­ Social problems, withdraw from society ­ Motor disturbances ­ Repetitive, compulsive behaviors ­ Lack of activity at times ­ Catatonia ­ Catatonic stupor: rigid and immobile for hours at a time;  waxy flexibility: you can move them into a position and they will stay in it ­ Symptom categorization ­ Positive symptoms ­ Presence of inappropriate behaviors ­ More likely to improve if only positive symptoms ­ Negative symptoms ­ Absence of appropriate behaviors (worse prognosis) ­ Shows up between late teens­early 20's ­ Symptoms occur suddenly or gradually ­ Suddenly as a response to stress ­­> patient more likely to recover ­ Episodic (repeated episodes, most common course) or chronic (strong symptoms most of the time) ­ Difficult to treat: people don't realize they have it; people may believe the  doctors/pills are trying to harm them; tendency to stop taking medication ­ Biological factors ­ Genetic predisposition ­ Adopted kids are more likely to get schizophrenia if biological  parent has it; no correlation if adoptive parents have it ­ People who have older biological fathers have increased risk ­ Over activity of dopamine causes positive symptoms ­ Under activity of glutamate causes negative symptoms ­ Brain ­ Widespread abnormalities ­ Enlarged ventricles (means loss of brain tissue) ­ Neurodevelopmental events ­ Prenatal trauma ­ Oxygen deprivation during birth ­ Low birth weight ­ Prenatal viral infection ­ Psychosocial/sociocultural factors ­ Nonindustrial cultures: symptoms are less severe ­ Symptoms vary slightly by culture Personality Disorders: disruptive, consistent, dysfunctional pattern of behavior and  thought that impairs social functioning ­ Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) ­ Psychopaths, sociopaths ­ Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others ­ Show a lack of conscience by the age of 15 ­ Problems with job, relationships ­ Manipulative, arrogant, irresponsible, impulsive, deceitful ­ Less empathy, remorse, guilt, and fear ­ Less sensitive to punishment ­ May be charming, intelligent ­ Biological factors ­ Genetic influence ­ Adopted kids more likely to get ASPD if a biological  parent has it or if adoptive parent has it ­ Minimal physiological arousal under stress ­ Lower levels of stress hormones in response to distress ­ Less brain activity in response to emotional images ­ Less reactive nervous systems ­ Deficits in functioning of prefrontal cortex; lower serotonin level ­ Psychosocial factors ­ Poverty ­ Instability in childhood ­ Abuse ­ Difficult to treat ­ Difficult to recognize something is wrong ­ Doesn't cause distress for person who has it ­ Manipulate their therapists Therapy ­ Psychotherapy: therapist uses psychological techniques ­ Eclectic approach: using different pieces from different types of  therapies instead of focusing on just one ­ Classical psychotherapy: making the person aware of repressed,  unconscious conflicts ­ Uncommon today because it requires a huge long­term time  commitment ­ Psychodynamic therapy: focus on social relationships, self­understanding ­ Humanistic therapy: enhance self­awareness and self­acceptance ­ Used more to treat minor problems and facilitate growth than to  cure illnesses ­ Rogers's Client­Centered Therapy: therapist provides support and companionship; non­judgmental ­ Clients possess the ability to solve their own problems ­ Three important elements: acceptance (unconditional  positive regard), genuineness/congruence, empathy (reflection: paraphrasing what client  says so that the client feels heard, and will elaborate on what they said) ­ Biomedical therapy: use of medication of medical procedure ­ Combination of psychotherapy and biomedical therapy is usually the best ­ Behavior therapy: to used the principles of learning to extinguish undesirable  behaviors and condition more desirable responses ­ Exposure with response prevention ("flooding"): patient is exposed to  feared but harmless stimulus ­ Used to treat OCD or phobias ­ Systematic desensitization: client learns relaxation techniques, and then  is exposed to dear/desensitization hierarchy ­ Fear/desensitization hierarchy: list of increasingly intense  versions of feared stimulus ­ Cognitive therapy: focus on the role that thinking plays in psychological  disorders ­ Restructure maladaptive thought processes so that the patient thinks in a  more constructive manner ­ Correct negative assumptions by pointing out the irrationality of thoughts ­ Self­statement modification ­ Replace negative with positive ­ Cognitive­behavior therapy: blend of cognitive and behavior therapy Biomedical treatment: involves medication or medical procedures ­ Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT): applies electrical current to scalp to  produce convulsions ­ Used to treat severe depression ­ In the past, person was awake and could die from heart stopping ­ Now, given sedatives and lower voltage so no broken bones or  risk of death  ­ Highly effective ­ Side effects: minor memory loss, mental confusion ­ Psychosurgery: removal or destruction of brain tissue to treat psychological  disorders ­ Today, this involves planting electrodes in the brain, not removing any  brain tissue ­ In the past, prefrontal lobotomies were common ­ Cut connections between frontal lobes and limbic areas ­ Dr. Moniz claimed it was beneficial without side effects ­ Imprecise procedure, variable results: lethargy, immaturity,  impulsivity, and loss of personality (damage to prefrontal cortex) ­ Freeman's trans­orbital lobotomy: shocked the patient into  unconsciousness, access to brain through eye­socket Drugs ­ Antipsychotics/Neuroleptics: drugs used to treat schizophrenia ­ Dopamine antagonist ­ Older "typical" drugs: Thorazine, Haldol ­ Newer (atypical) drugs: Clozapine, Risperdal, Zyprexa ­ Side effects ­ Tardive dyskinesia: repetitive, uncontrollable movements on  face/head ­ Irreversible ­ Antidepressants ­ Treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD ­ Increase serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine ­ Older: monoamine oxidase inhibitors ­ Increase serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine ­ Newer: Tricyclics ­ Increase serotonin and norepinephrine ­ Newest: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) ­ Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil ­ Others: Wellbutrin, Effexor, Cymbalta ­ More likely to help people who have severe depression ­ Take 4­6 weeks to reach full effectiveness ­ Don't prevent sadness; don't make people happy all the time 


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