PSYC 1000 - Week 13 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 13 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
PSYC 1000 Week 13 Notes April 1115 Depression Biological factors Genetic predisposition Tends to run in families Lack of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine Release more stress hormones than others Psychological and social factors Neuroticism Learned helplessness, external locus of control Perfectionism Negative explanatory style Lack selfserving bias Stress Bipolar disorder: experiencing extreme moods out of proportion to events of life Manic depression Mania: highly agitated emotional state Emotion: euphoria or irritability Cognition: optimism, poor judgment, grandiosity Behavior: hyperactivity, insomnia, talkativeness, recklessness Genetic predisposition, stress Schizophrenia Characteristics Disordered and irrational thoughts and ideas Distorted perceptions, psychosis Inappropriate emotions and behaviors Major symptoms Hallucinations, usually auditory Delusions: thoughts and beliefs inconsistent with reality Persecution: belief that other people are out to get them Grandeur: exaggerated belief in their own importance Ideas of reference: believe that random events have personal relevance Disorganized thinking and speech Lack selective attention Emotional disturbances Inappropriate emotions Flat affect: showing little emotion Social problems, withdraw from society Motor disturbances Repetitive, compulsive behaviors Lack of activity at times Catatonia Catatonic stupor: rigid and immobile for hours at a time; waxy flexibility: you can move them into a position and they will stay in it Symptom categorization Positive symptoms Presence of inappropriate behaviors More likely to improve if only positive symptoms Negative symptoms Absence of appropriate behaviors (worse prognosis) Shows up between late teensearly 20's Symptoms occur suddenly or gradually Suddenly as a response to stress > patient more likely to recover Episodic (repeated episodes, most common course) or chronic (strong symptoms most of the time) Difficult to treat: people don't realize they have it; people may believe the doctors/pills are trying to harm them; tendency to stop taking medication Biological factors Genetic predisposition Adopted kids are more likely to get schizophrenia if biological parent has it; no correlation if adoptive parents have it People who have older biological fathers have increased risk Over activity of dopamine causes positive symptoms Under activity of glutamate causes negative symptoms Brain Widespread abnormalities Enlarged ventricles (means loss of brain tissue) Neurodevelopmental events Prenatal trauma Oxygen deprivation during birth Low birth weight Prenatal viral infection Psychosocial/sociocultural factors Nonindustrial cultures: symptoms are less severe Symptoms vary slightly by culture Personality Disorders: disruptive, consistent, dysfunctional pattern of behavior and thought that impairs social functioning Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) Psychopaths, sociopaths Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others Show a lack of conscience by the age of 15 Problems with job, relationships Manipulative, arrogant, irresponsible, impulsive, deceitful Less empathy, remorse, guilt, and fear Less sensitive to punishment May be charming, intelligent Biological factors Genetic influence Adopted kids more likely to get ASPD if a biological parent has it or if adoptive parent has it Minimal physiological arousal under stress Lower levels of stress hormones in response to distress Less brain activity in response to emotional images Less reactive nervous systems Deficits in functioning of prefrontal cortex; lower serotonin level Psychosocial factors Poverty Instability in childhood Abuse Difficult to treat Difficult to recognize something is wrong Doesn't cause distress for person who has it Manipulate their therapists Therapy Psychotherapy: therapist uses psychological techniques Eclectic approach: using different pieces from different types of therapies instead of focusing on just one Classical psychotherapy: making the person aware of repressed, unconscious conflicts Uncommon today because it requires a huge longterm time commitment Psychodynamic therapy: focus on social relationships, selfunderstanding Humanistic therapy: enhance selfawareness and selfacceptance Used more to treat minor problems and facilitate growth than to cure illnesses Rogers's ClientCentered Therapy: therapist provides support and companionship; nonjudgmental Clients possess the ability to solve their own problems Three important elements: acceptance (unconditional positive regard), genuineness/congruence, empathy (reflection: paraphrasing what client says so that the client feels heard, and will elaborate on what they said) Biomedical therapy: use of medication of medical procedure Combination of psychotherapy and biomedical therapy is usually the best Behavior therapy: to used the principles of learning to extinguish undesirable behaviors and condition more desirable responses Exposure with response prevention ("flooding"): patient is exposed to feared but harmless stimulus Used to treat OCD or phobias Systematic desensitization: client learns relaxation techniques, and then is exposed to dear/desensitization hierarchy Fear/desensitization hierarchy: list of increasingly intense versions of feared stimulus Cognitive therapy: focus on the role that thinking plays in psychological disorders Restructure maladaptive thought processes so that the patient thinks in a more constructive manner Correct negative assumptions by pointing out the irrationality of thoughts Selfstatement modification Replace negative with positive Cognitivebehavior therapy: blend of cognitive and behavior therapy Biomedical treatment: involves medication or medical procedures Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT): applies electrical current to scalp to produce convulsions Used to treat severe depression In the past, person was awake and could die from heart stopping Now, given sedatives and lower voltage so no broken bones or risk of death Highly effective Side effects: minor memory loss, mental confusion Psychosurgery: removal or destruction of brain tissue to treat psychological disorders Today, this involves planting electrodes in the brain, not removing any brain tissue In the past, prefrontal lobotomies were common Cut connections between frontal lobes and limbic areas Dr. Moniz claimed it was beneficial without side effects Imprecise procedure, variable results: lethargy, immaturity, impulsivity, and loss of personality (damage to prefrontal cortex) Freeman's transorbital lobotomy: shocked the patient into unconsciousness, access to brain through eyesocket Drugs Antipsychotics/Neuroleptics: drugs used to treat schizophrenia Dopamine antagonist Older "typical" drugs: Thorazine, Haldol Newer (atypical) drugs: Clozapine, Risperdal, Zyprexa Side effects Tardive dyskinesia: repetitive, uncontrollable movements on face/head Irreversible Antidepressants Treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD Increase serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine Older: monoamine oxidase inhibitors Increase serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine Newer: Tricyclics Increase serotonin and norepinephrine Newest: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil Others: Wellbutrin, Effexor, Cymbalta More likely to help people who have severe depression Take 46 weeks to reach full effectiveness Don't prevent sadness; don't make people happy all the time
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