Psych of aging notes
Washington State University Vancouver
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jayme Anderson on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Washington State University Vancouver taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.
Reviews for Psych of aging notes
I love that I can count on (Jayme for top notch notes! Especially around test time...
-Kelsi Reichel IV
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/10/15
Personality 1 Slide one 2 Slide two a Describe your pet b Why do you think they have these characteristics 3 Slide Three a Question 2 exa Why did you describe your pet with these words How do you know what your pet wants and doesn t want b Question 3 Why is it important to know about people or what they are like Why should we care 4 Slide 4 a Goal is to describe people Three main that you should know 3 Psychoanalytic universal personality similarities between people What drives people to act or be the way they are Trait common sense approach personality traits How people are different from each other Do we need to know their traits to really know a person Soc Cog explains people in terms of how people think and act within a given environment Learning behaviors within the environment Emphasizes people39s beliefs and other conscious cognitive processes 5 Psychodynamic Perspective a Freud personality and behavior constant interplay between con icting psychological forces that we aren t aware of 6 Freud believed that each person possesses a certain amount of psychological energy which evolves to form the id ego and super ego Not things that can be measured F c d Freud believed personality development stopped at age ve e Erik Erikson followed under Freud in Vienna i Agreed with Freud that the ego played central role in balance of personality Actively directing behavior ii Says there continues to be personality development throughout the lifespan 7 Erickson s contributions Theory a According to Erickson in order to successfully form identity in adolescence they go through diffusion then moratorium exploration of who they want to bedo integrated identity after some crisis is resolved b Focused a lot on occupational status religion moral and political beliefs 8 Marcia extended Erickson s theory a Erickson fan of Epigenetic stages happen in order like a ower blooming b Marcia not necessarily stagessome might get stuck in any given stage Focused on adolescent development but understands identity con ict at different stages in life Begin to question beliefs and other 1 Con dent in themselves but not exploring crisisexploration ready to make commitment but hasn t made one yet 1 Dating trying to decide on what you like in a partner 2 College trying to decide on a career 3 Babysitting deciding if you want to be a parent 4 Associated with low self esteem 5 More likely to be open and curious 6 lnternalizing symptomsdepressinganxiety makes commitment 1 Marriage 2 Major 3 Childrenno children 4 Different areas in your life may be at different stages of identity 5 More balanced 6 May be referred to as assimilation which can also be a negative thing 9 Criticisms of Psychodynamic perspective not in book aThings are happening in unconscious mind how are people supposed to test that b Might be able to measure indicators but not if those are a product of unconscious drives or motives c Rejects free will all are done by unconscious drives developed in early childhood i Don t have control over our behavior on a day to day basis d Reductionistic Trait Approaches 1 Emphasizes the differences between people 2Traits are relatively stable and enduring 3 Predisposition to act in a certain way across many different kinds of situations 4 People possess certain traits along a continuum a Really shy vs slightly shy 5 Slides a Esyenck the big three i Extroversion neuroticism psychoticism b Cattell 16 PF i Abstractedness apprehension dominance emotional stability liveliness etc i Basic traits for people used in research Slide 2 i Generally a richer life seeking out new opportunities if high ii Lowmore conservative seek out familiarity even keel e Side 3 i Rreverse coded f Slide 4 i High organized purposeful workaholics ii Low less organized not motivated incompetent 9 i High like to be stimulated and energized by others ii Low not unfriendly just prefer to be alone being with others is draining more even keel i High want to believe in the best in other people ii Low more likely to believe they are right valid accurate than others more likely to have better critical thinking skills i i High More easily stressed rattled ii Low more easily manage stress j Personalities Set i Maybemaybe notdisagreed uponlt depends k that happen to our personality based on these graphs i Social vitality Facet of extroversion stable 1 Decrease in later life might be related to social disengagement theory Increase in social dominance over the l espan 39 Conscientiousness increasing throughout l espan Emotional stability increasing throughout l espan Openness increases then starts to decline People become more con dent warm responsible and more emotionally stable as they age iv Life events that re ect traits then further affect personalities 1 Enhanced over time because of situations you put yourself in over time 2 Personality determines the events we put ourselves in Criticism of trait theory Not explaining personality just labeling predispositions and differences between peoplebut don t try to explain how or why these differences exist Don39t address research questions Hard core personality trait theorist would say personality does not change at all Can be useful when trying to predict behavior If not personality theorist begin to wonder what personality tests are really measuring Are they measuring traits or stress levelsanxietyetc Social cognitive perspective 1 Person s thought processes in different situations strongly in uence hisher actions 2 Conscious not subconsciousunconscious aware of the things we are thinking in uencing how we react in different situations Sense of self varies across different situations 3 Socialenvironment a Environment thinking which in uences your thinking i Relies on empirical evidence b Social Cognitive Theorist i Bobo doll experiments don t just learn by experience alone Learn from observing others as well and the consequences of those actions ii 1 Cog factors in uence environmental factors and behavioral factors 2 Environmental factors in uence cog factors and behavioral factors 3 Behavioral factors in uence cog factors and environmental factors i The lens through which we view the world ii Guides how we perceive and evaluate things iii Helps us to controlregulate behavior in different situations iv Bandura proposed selfefficacy as critical component 1 Degree to which you believe you can do something v Core selfefficacy may be optimistic but in vi vii some situations you are uncomfortable with skill level selfefficacy might vary across stuanns Selfsystem constantly changing throughout thel espan Our selfperceptionselfefficacy determines which situations we put ourselves innot good at it avoid it De ned Throughout adult hood people structure the nature of their relationships to maximize gains and minimize risks two main functions 1 Informational acquaintance level friendshipsimmature friendships early friendships discussing how to s Exa new friends at new job 2 Emotional Friends are your friends because they make you feel good on some level Contribute to your overall happinesswellbeing As people age they feel like they are running out of time so they want to maximize the emotional functions of relationships Begin to spend more time with spouse close friends Less time in large groups Older adults less likely to want to meet new people in general v Motivation based theorygenerates the notion that older adults have what is known as positivity effect 1 Respond to positivity more readily than younger adults and they report more positive affect relative to younger individuals vi Maps on with the trait perspective Cognitive Perspective 1 2 Overlaps with social cognitive perspective People don t always think about themselves realistically 3Tend to see themselves in a more positive light than 4 5 lm what is warrented As a whole people think of themselves as above average Possible selves theory a An individual s idea of what they might become what they would like to become what they are afraid of becoming b Links cognition and motivation Coping and Control ldentity Process theory a Experience more personal loss as you age b Greater frequency of personal disappointments a b Not something that actually appears in reality and not in a way that researchers propose that it does This does not appear to be the case Ch 9 Relationships Relationships with other people engender some of the strongest emotionsinterpersona Component 1 Romantic Relationships in adolescence a b c d 2The Developmental years intense emotions Youth are trying to gure out who they are Autonomous agents less time with family more time with peers Formation of romantic relationships is hallmark of adolescence one of the most important parts of adolescents Effects well into adulthood depending on how the relationships go broader social context Parentsfamily i Spend less time seek less support from and con ict between parents and kids decreases in number of confrontations but increase in emotion Peers More time seek more support from friends ii Not replacing but rising to become as equal of importance to moms Peers play greater role in romantic relationships and how they form Dumphy observed adolescents over a number of years vi vii iv Stage one GangsclicksGenerally start with same sex groups Stage two Higher status members of group start puberty groups start to intermingle Perticularly between high status members 39 Stage three Begin to pair off in mixed sex groups Dating begins to occur Stage Four fully developed crowd begins to emerge Mixed sex clicks begin to emerge Stage ve crowd disintegrates and spend more time with romantic partner 1 Movement between stages driven by high status members and general human tendency to want to be accepted in the group Cross culture beginning 4th and 5th grade Continues through high school Changes in environment can revert you back to any of the previous stages Exa going to college Almost 60 of 3rOI graders say they have a romantic relationship Then decreases after 1013 group dating not one on one Elevate you in social hierarchy iI iii Longer duration average is 4 months Only 8 of 15 year olds have relationship longer than a year Contact constant Calling texting talking 1Ave phone call 1hr Still more likely to occur in group context Exa school dance or movies vi By age 16 34 are going out alone High school seniors i Can tell anything to the partner ii Value commitment iii More alone time forego group activities iv Generally long durations average is over a yeah v More private going to their house dinner alone etc vi Mimic later adulthood relationships g Adjustment tradeoffs girls are predominantly effected by early relationships i Pros 1 Strong emotions 2 Primary social support 3 Associated with acceptancecompetence 4 Sexual development iL Cons 1 Strong emotions 2 Primary source of con ict 3Associated with depression girls especially 4 Dating violence and sexual coercion h Sex i Oral sex is common ii Oral and intercourse not one or the other iii Normative behaviors among adolescence iv About h a Negative outcomes mood problems substance use etc b Usually number of other risk factors as well v 30 of 15 year olds are sexually active as well 1 Before 15 more likely to engage in risky behaviors vii When sexual activity begins in following relationships they start having sex by two months ix Over time 64 who are sexually active will ultimately have sex with someone they are not currently in a relationship with x When having sex outside of a relationship usually hope that a relationship will develop xi Cheating is practically normative in adolescence relationships Most common reason for ending relationships xii 1 Less careful because they assume safe 2 Less likely to communicate because they assume they know xiii Peer pressure number 1 reason why they engage in sexual activity and assume friends are engaging as well xiv Also just because they want to same drives as adults for sexual and emotional intimacy xv Engage even when they don t want to 112 of girls who participated said they had an unwanted sexual experience 2 Less than 10 of boys had unwanted sexualexpe ence a 1519 years of age xvi Dating aggression big problem 11025 of adolescence have experienced physically aggressive or sexually coercive aggression in a relationship 2 Psychological aggression vast majority have experienced 3 Mutually violent males and females equally likely to perpetrate 4At risk couples a Girls aggressive as form of escalated self defense b Boys aggressive as a desire to control their partner 5 After aggressive acts a Females upset by violence b Males laugh it off and report that relationship got better after xvii Romantic dissolution extremely common but also extremely traumatic 1 Females more vulnerable strongest predictor of suicide 8 month delay between dissolution and suicide attempt 2 Psychological distress best predictor of good adjustment is getting right back into another relationship DD 50 years ago 60 of 1829 year olds were married Average age of rst marriage 26 females 28 malesapprox Asian Americans 64 who are older than 18 are married African Americans 34 of adults are married lnternational freedom to marry i The Netherlands was the world leader in same sex marriage Bene ts of marriage Happy i Health and emotional bene ts is why people are so invested in the concept of marriage ii Women more effected by bad marriages in physical and emotional health 4Cohabtann a b Living together without being in a marital partenership 70 of women between 30 and 34 have cohabitated with a male partner 23 of new marriages take place between couples who have cohabitated for at least 2 years New norm This trend really troubling to some people because research says cohabitation is one of the biggest risk factors for ultimately getting a divorce has not been observed since the mid 1990 s Actually not cohabitation itself but young age cohabitation that predicts divorce g Personality factors cohort effect in the 60 s a different type of person would cohabitate than today s people who cohabitate h Early marriage before age 23 i More likely to end in divorce a Love lab in Seattle b 5 to 1 ratio i For every one negative interaction you have with your partner you should have 5 positive interactions ii Comes from child literature Same ratio in childparent relationships Original research done in Boystown iii More likely to feel satis ed and close to partner and partner to feel the same for you iv All these are behaviors and easier to change 6 Divorce a Is declining right now b If couples make it past 88 then the next average is approximately 20 years c Divorce is considered a risk factor for future divorces d Poor choosing of partners that are not compatible can be a risk factor 7Tolls of divorce a Divorcedwidowed women who have children and do not remarry are at greater risk for these tertiary problems i Possibly due to being single working momlacking social support ii Even if a good stressor still a signi cant negative life event 8 Widowhood a 14 million widows in US most over the age of 65 b Most women over 85 are widows c People react to widowhood in very different ways d Resilient grief i Majority of women followed during research showed very little distress following loss ii Perhaps women were caregivers to their husbands grief offset by not having to care for someone iii 75 of women followed had resilient grief i Greater probability of death for you after spouse dies ii Widowed men have greatest mortality risk 1 Not related to cardiovascular disease but more related to psychosocial risk factors 2 More likely to get remarried quickly iii Anniversary reaction 1 Up to and possibly longer than 35 years after the death of a spouse 2 Suggests that maybe there are people who are unable to work through their grief 3 Any special day you associate to the loved one not necessarily the date that they passed 4 Normalcommon reactions i Socioemotional selectivity theory 1 Seek maximum happiness through longterm relationships ii Social exchange theory based on everyone being sel sh 1 Cost vs bene ts 2 If balance shifts and more con icts occur more likely to end relationship iii Equity Theory linked to social exchange 1 Balance in relationship a Partners contribute equal amounts to relationship iv Similarity perspective 1 Birds of a feather ock together v Need complementarity hypothesis 1 Opposites attract 2 Differences compliment each other vi Behavioral approach linked to Gottman s approach i Ted Huston ii 13 year longitudinal study developed following theories 1 Enduring Dynamics Pathway a Patterns developed in beginning of relationship persist until the end of the relationship b Most relationships fall under this pattern 2 Emergent Distress Pathway a Relationship started ne but little con icts trickled in Do not resolve these con icts 3 Disillusionment Pathway a Start out happy and problems develop over time Essentially lose interest over time iii Two Key features that distinguish happy from unhappy couples 1 Happy more expressions of affectionlove and less negative expressions 2 Unhappy less expressions of loveaffection and more negative expression 9 Families ii Poor relationship with parents 1 Good relationships with parentsmore support b Samesex families i Children of same sex families vs children in heterosexual families 1 Same sex children rated higher in empathy and passion i Start spending more time on relations with people in their family ii More involved in prosocial activities coaching etc iii If partner is con dent in his parenting then he demonstrates more con dently iv Single dads spend more time with children than married dads d Empty nest i Positive effect on marriages 1 Improved relations 2 2025 of parents report symptoms of this 3 e Parent Child Relationships i Concepts 1 lntergenerational Stake Parents have more at stake in their children than children have in their parents Parents care more about children than children care for their parents in speci c areas like workschoolrelations Developmental schism Role Reversal Child takes on parenting role a Only about 20 take on caregiving role of parents b stuck between caring for children and parents c Belief is often female child takes on primary responsibility for caregiving role of parents d Research suggest caregiving gets split between spouses One child takes on role and their spouse e Most common ow of support ows down from parents to children to grandchildren DUN ii Helicopter Parents 1 Over involved parenting in young childhood not good but in college or young adulthood does not have a lot of research 2 Over involved parents are similar but not quite the same as helicopter parents 3 Helicopter parents are similar to authoritative parents 4 8 of college students said they had helicopter parents 5 Students with more involved parents better success and happiness in child s life 6 Parents average time spent with children has doubled since 1995 71112 hours in a week pre 1995 to spending a little over 20 hours a week now moms 85 hours in a week pre 1995 to 10 hours a week Dads iii Siblings 1 Much more supportive in adulthood than childhoodpossibly iv Grandparents 1 Most skip generation grandparents are under the age of 60 2 Grandparents who have good relationship with children are more likely to be in contact with their grandchildren 3 Contact with grandparents steadily decreases over time 4 Can be devastating to lose contact with their grandchild Example Parents divorce time with grandparent declines 5 Report more symptoms of depression and physical illness and general lower quality of life f Friendships in Adulthood i Mutual exchange reciprocity ii When couples marry spouse status raises while individual friends status lowers 1 Diatic withdrawl less time with individual relationships and more with couple friends PG 198 10 Work a Patterns in adulthood i 2012 64 of 16 population was employed or actively seeking employment 16 labor force ii As of Friday 937 of labor force is employed 1 Does not include a People who are marginally attached to workforce people who want to work but haven t looked for a job in last four weeks b Discouraged workers people who want to work but haven t searched from a long time c Involuntary part time workers people whom hours have been cut back or could only nd part time d Underemployed workers Example people who work at Starbucks with a PhD iii 2018 80 of people between ages 5559 will still be employed all time high for this age group iv African Americans and American Indians and Hispanic disproportionately affected by recession v Still racial disparities among higher ed groups vi Over 12 of US women are in labor force vii Mothers with children under 5 are underrepresented in work force b lncome varies by ethnicity and gender i 82 gender gap for every dollar a man makes a woman makes 82 cents Pay gap compounded for minority women Internationally ii Racial gap is similar to gender gap c Vocational Development i Vocation persons choice of occupation 1 Supposed to represent personal interests and preferrences ii Main assumption is people can choose what work they pursue 1 Why do people make the choices they make 2 Will they be happy and satis ed and productive d Riasec Model Hollands vocational development theory i People express personality through vocational asperations and interests ii Holland proposed six fundamental vocational types 1 Realisic doers 2 Investigative thinkers 3Artistic creative 4 Social helpers 5 Enterprising persuaders 6 Conventional Organizers iii Similarities between this and trait theory ve Factor iv Apply by taking a battery of assessments 1 Strong vocational interest inventory SVII 2 Selfdirected search SDS a Some are one type some two type e Super s theory i Takes into account that the market place may not always societal demand for what your true self wants or needs ii Takes into account that it is a developmental perspective Calling changes with time and expedences iii Not everyone can achieve full realization of self iv Lifespan 1 Growth fantasizing about what they want to do 2 ExplorationTeens to mid 20 s crystalize ideas about future more speci c taking steps to get there vi vii viii 3 Establishment 20 s30 s Stabalize idea get job etc 4 Maintenance mid career advancing through company or profession peak of career 5 Disengagement late career wind down with work related activities planning for or in retirement Do not have to cycle through all stages recycle back and can get into stages and backtrack Exa get to establishment decide you don t like 1 Career plateau cannot advance any further Lifespace 1 Maybe if you aren t able to nd a career that excites you there are other things in life that may allow you to do that Occupation as a calling 1 Have the ability to reach that self actualization if living the calling 2 Have the potential to have the greatest form of life satisfaction Vocational development variations 1Traditional view one life and one career Stay with the company until you retire Start in mail room and work way up into the executives office 2 Boundaryless Career career that cross boundaries of employerorganization Exa leave one company for another in a lateral move 3 Protean Career Individuals feel self directed and driven internally by their own values a Can see which direction the quottidesquot are owing and make their own career become their own boss Selfdirected and driven internally b Old man of the sea early sea gods in Greek mythology Proteas see the future and transform himself to be c Protean has the capacity to change f Vocational Satisfaction i 47 of people surveyed said they were happy with their jobs ii Down 60 from 1987 iii lntrinsic 1The things that make up the job itself the kind of work you are doing iv Extrinsic Hygiene factors 1 Come with the job but not central to performance Coworkerssupervisors v Favorable extrinsic factors can prevent the development ofjob dissatisfaction vi Growth selfful llment etc can only come from intrinsic g Selfdetermination theory i Gaining mastery over challenges and taking in new experiences are what you need to develop a cohiecive sense of self ii Need to feel belonging and attachment to people and job ll 12 iii A sense of autonomy some control iv Motivation crowding out when someone has an extrinsic overpowers an intrinsic interest 1 Exa I clean my room then my family decides to give me allowance for cleaning my room now I don t feel as internally driven as before due to the money Positive and negative moods i Affective events theory events at work affect our mood and in uences our attitudes aboutthejob Theory of work Adjustment The individual requires compensation for work performance pay bene ts nice work environment bThe degree to which the requirements of both C are met is called correspondence Work adjustment is the process of achieving and maintaining correspondence and can be measured by the amount of satisfaction the employer and employee has Personenvironment correspondence model Workplace Values and workers needs match i Occupational reinforcement patterns Achievements accomplishment Altruism of service to others Autonomy need for control Comfort not stressed out Safety stability and order and predictability Status recognition for work advancement needs satis ed U39lbUUNH m Work Stress 1 Emotional labor workers having to manage or control their emotions a When emotional labor high increase in work stress and burn out i When feel burnout you can start to feel detatched from people you work with Hard to be genuine for clients and can diminish your bene ts sense of accomplishment ii Deep acting change your attitude and thoughts and you can change your behavior iii When deep acting is achieved more likely to stay at job 2 Work place bullying a Any pattern of behavior that undermines intimidates degrades etc b Average number of targets that a bully has is about5 c Giving misinformation or not all information can be bullying d Boss repeatedly mispronouncing nameforgetting name Effects emotional and physical Denmark Study i All different types of bullying correlated to psychological stress ii Direct harassment and intimidating behaviors were the worst iii Associated with trauma symptoms and physiological stress response disregulated cortosal secretion gWhitehall ll ndings Tth i Even after controlling for other variables developing metabolic syndrome due to work stress ii Women high work stress linked to type two diabetes iii Men had greater dysregulation of HPA 1 Regulates stress a Immune suppression obesity depression anxiety sleep problems etc 3 Workfamily enrichment model a Most people are trying to achieve balance between home life and work life b Within this model experiences in one role can improve quality of life in other role i Skills and perspectives skills learned on job may help with home experiences ii Psychologicalphysical resources feelings of selfefficacy hardiness optimism iii Social capital resources networking and information Exa parent can then network with other parents iv Flexibility both at home and at work can mutually in uence the other v Material Resources money gifts etc c Kind of related to social exchange theory people who feel they get bene ts from job that is important to them are likely to work harder d More obligated to reciprocate to their employer 4 Workfamily con ict model a Only so many hours in a day to be all the different roles we take on b The more time you devote to your career the less time for your family c Con ict most likely to occur to i mothers with young children ii Dueal career couples iii Workaholics d Those that work in private sector more likely to experience than those in public sector e Greater con ict for younger workers under the age of 45 i When older workers do experience this it is worse stronger effect f Personality affectivity plays a role i People who are positive optimistic less likely to experience con ict 5 Age and Vocational Satisfaction a Metaanalysis looked at satisfaction with i Overall job ii With work iii With pay iv lntrinsic motivation b So many potential third variables and no one study can take each of these factors into account 6 Performance of older worker a Lower core work performance can be related to the type of job dexterity memory etc b Become better in other ways i Fewer counterproductive behaviors 1 Less likely to be absent from work 2 More likely to be involved with work better citizenship 3 Less safety risks on job 4 Most older workers do not lose any job functioning and retain 7Age discrimination a Written in 1967 protects 40 yrs or older based on age i Pertains to employees and job applicants ii Any term or position iii Police remen pilots can discriminate on age iv Age something that is hard to prove v Older adults can perceive as less able to perform or that there is age discrimination which then becomes selfful lling prophesy 8 Retirement a Presumption that there is a date when you decide to retire L Phases 1Anticipatory period thinkingplanning forcan last for decades but eventually makes decision to retire 2 Decision to retire goes through last of cial day at given job Of cial retirement 3 Immediate adjustment whole family can experience this adjustment 4 Changes in activity patterns picked up new hobbies ii Some people retire several times repeat the phases 9 Retirement as a process a Variations i Crisp retirement pattern retire and done 10 ll 12 13 agoo C39QJ ii Blurred retirement pattern exit and reenter labor force iii Bridge employment retires from one career and starts own business Social security Pay as you go system kind of i Current workers pay for current retirees ii Additional monies invested iii Trust becomes depleted due to more retirees taking money out than workers putting in money Resource model of retirement Retirement differes between men and women and men operate according to usual mode of retirement don t consult family before retirement New mode of retirement consult family before decision to retire Women are more likely to be described as having new mode of retirement Leisure lmportant that we all develop hobbies Don t let work tak over our lives lncreadibly important in retirement Strong sense of identity provide focus and meaning in life can help maintain health and cog functioning and social connections Physical activity within a leisure context is a protective factor from mortality Elder abuse Little research on topic Five types i Physical iL Sexual iii Psychologicalemotional iv Financial exploitation v Neglect from care taker or self 1 Don t shower pay bills etc c About 14 of older adults experience elder abuse Vastly unreported For every case reported ve are unreported Recommendations for reducing i Not ever state has laws or mandatory reporting and don t have adequate resources to pursue 14 Suicide Males over 75 highest rates History of previous attempts 1 risk factor Older suicide victims are hard to assess often don t disclose and present as mildmoderate depression TthQ 060 CH 8 PersonalityCH 9 RelationshipCH 10 work and leisureCh 11 232234 suicidality and elder abuse Test topics
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'