Biology 100 Week 11
Biology 100 Week 11 BIO 151-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Week 11 Biology: Reproductive Systems Male Reproductive System: I. Functions: sperm & hormones II. Seminiferous tubules a. Location of the sertoli cells III. Spermatogenesis: starts with puberty a. When hormones ( Follicle-stimulating hormone) from anterior pituitary gland sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules i. What is the function/what does the follicle stimulating hormone do???? 1.STIMULATES TESTOSTERONE SECREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPERM b. Luteinizing hormone also released from anterior pituitary and target to the epididymis i. What is the function of epididymis?? 1.IT NOURISHES THE SPERM=ATP FOR TRAVEL ii. What is the function of the luteinizing hormone??? 1.STIMULATES TESOSTERONE SECREATIN AND DEVELOPEMTN OF SPERM iii. 10 s of millions of sperms are released all the time, but until they are released they are stored in the Epididymis. 1.On 10% of those sperms ever “successfully” fertilize the egg. So many sperms are not matured properly, female system is so acidic, many sperm travel in the wrong fallopian tube, and female system is “picky” Female Reproductive System: I. Functions: (1) begin process of oogenesis (2)hormones secretion of estrogen and progesterone II. Fallopian tubes=oviducts – meiosis is completed there IF fertilization is about to happen -> different site to form egg a. “Site of completion of oogenesis->ovum” b. “Site of fertilization c. “Site of initial mitosis” III. Uterus a. Endometrium-inner lining of uterus b. Cervix opening into uterus – dilates 10 cm for birth c. Vagina- region for birth canal IV. 300,000 potential ovaries – many will never be fertilized, in reference to the 10s of millions of sperme – why is this??? V. Oogenesis-the 28 (average) day of ovarian cycle-starting day 1 of period. a. Period is the shedding of uterus lining, in efforts of preparation for a pregnancy, but period occurs if there is no fertilization, no period of there is conception. VI. Ovaries: within the ovaries, meiosis occurs producing 2 daughter cells but here the oocyte is still one cell st a. During 1 mitotic division, chromosomes are technically split, but only 1 cell develops organelles, the other one is a “polar body”. i. Literally putting all eggs in one basket… b. Secondary Ooctye ->fallopian tubes i. Stimulated by sperm = meiosis II recap the differences between male and female gametogenesis… Ovarian and Uterine Cycles: I. Menstrual phase in uterus days 1-5 a. Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the new follicle b. Days 5-13 FSH stimulates cells -> estrogen = Meiosis I in ovary c. Day 14 ovulation -> Luteinizing Hormone Burst from anterior pituitary i. Creating a huge spike of estrogen bursting in ovaries d. Day 15-28 (average) luteal phase in ovary i. Corpus luteum degenerates ii. Levels of estrogen and progesterone drop iii. Uterine wall shed- start new cycle II. Controlled by interplay of hormones of pituitary glad (anterior) increases secretion of FSH and LH. a. These hormones stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and secrete estrogen i. Increase levels of estrogen feed back to the pituitary inhibiting the release of FSH and LH. b. Next week level of FSH and LH drop c. Day 12, increase of estrogen has opposite affect on gland, these hormones exert positive effect- stimulating the secretion of small amounts of FSH and large amounts of LH d. LH peaks at day 14, triggers mature follicle to rupture for ovulation e. LH triggers the remaining follicles to differentiate into corpus luteum i. Secretes estrogen and progesterone the last 2 weeks of the cycle ii. Hormones inhibit release of FSH and LH and restrict follicles from the developing the 2ndhalf of the cycle iii. LH or hormone produced by embedded embryo, is required to maintain to he life of the Corpus Luteum iv. If there is no fertilization, no embryo implanted, the Corpus Luteum then degenerates v. This degeneration no longer release hormones III. Reproductive Organ Disorders of Cancer: a. Breast cancer: 2 nd most common –tumor will show in an x-ray as a white area in the breast tissue b. Cervical Cancer: first well documented to be occurring from virus swabbing for cells c. Prostate cancer d. Testicular cancer Human Development and Birth: I. Fertilization a. Restores diploid - can only have 46 chromosomes (23 from sperm and 23 from egg) b. Triggers process of development – turns switch on c. Sperm on average will live in vagina up to 2 days d. Within the 12-24 hours that is the window of conception II. Goal a. Sperm to simultaneously use enzymes in their nose piece to break into the oocyte’s 2 layers. b. Once one sperm enters successfully, all other sperms are denied entrance III. Blastocyst are the source of embryonic cells a. There is a lot of controversy of whether or no these blastocysts should be harvested for stem cells—people see it as a slight form of abortion as the Blastocyst had the potential to become a fetus. b. Formation of the Placenta- little microfibers that hook inside and outside the uterus c. Amniotic fluid acts as another form of protection for the fetus i. The HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) basically yells the ovaries to keep secreting estrogen and progesterone or not to. 1. Depending on where or not to have conception. Reproductive Health: I. Different types of STIs a. Bacterial b. Viral c. And others II. Know their cause, treatment, and ways to prevent or otherwise protect from it. a. Means of protection: abstinence, barriers, hormones III. Different types of protection a. Like condoms, pills, etc
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