Popular in Geology
Popular in Geology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Derek Notetaker on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Washington State University taught by Dr.Wilkie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Geology in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Ground water is Drinking water for more than 50 of all people 40 of irrigation water Important for livestock amp industry An overused resource resulting in Water shortages Land subsidence Contamination AS particle size decrease porosity increases and permeability decreases Unconsolidated sediments Does gravel have more porosity than clay Gravel has large pores and clay has extremely ne pores mud from the Mississippi river delta consists of 80 water This is much higher than gravel would have but the gravel pores are interconnected high permeability Consolidated sedimentary rock Because the sediment has been lithi ed compaction or cementation the excess water has been squeezed out As the grain size decrease both the porosity and permeability also decrease Sorting Materials with poor sorting generally have less porosity and permeability than a well sorted material for the same grain size Compaction lncreased pressure from burial compresses the particles and the excess water is squeezed out Cementation Cement lls the pores so it decreases porosity and permeability Groundwater storage Aquifer Material sediment and rock that store and transmit groundwater in suf cient quantities they have high porosity and high permeability Unconsolidated Gravel and sand Consolidated Sandstone and conglomerate Aquitard also called con ning beds Sediment or Rock through which water cannot move or moves very slowly Low permeability porosity variesO Rocks that will work good Unconsolidated Mudstone clay Consolidated Shale and slate Porosity Available Space Permeability movement speed Types of aquifers Uncon ned aquifer an aquifer that is open to the surface It contains unsaturated and saturated zones which de ne a water table Con ned aquifer is an aquifer that is sandwiched between two aquitard It is not open to the surface Can igneous and metamorphic rock be aquifers Any rock type can be considered an aquifer if it is fractured and the fractures are inter connected Artesian ow water in a con ned aquifer is under pressure and rises above the level of the well water ows freely without pumping Pullman groundwater Our aquifer the Colombia River Basalt fractured The water is about 10000 years old The water table is dropping about 2 feet per year Ground water recharge can take a longtime days years or centuries depending on the ow path Springs Hot Springs geysers Springs here the surface intersects the water table Hot springs spring W water 69 Celsius 1015 F warmer than the mean annual air temperature Geysers Intermittent hot fountains columns of water caused by boiling at depth What happens when ground water withdraw is greater than ground water recharge Cone of depression excessive pumping draws down the water table into a cone shaped depression around a pumping well Salt water intrusion Fresh water is fewer dens than sea water and over pumping draws saltwater into well near ocean Subsidence when water is removed from pore spaces cracks in sedimentrocks the weight of overlying materials causes compaction and sinking of land surface Contamination of water supply Gas stations and other storage tanks LUST program leaky underground storage tanks Old land lls Evaporation ponds and beds associated with industry an EPA survey found 180000 such ponds and beds in US of which 77 were unlined Chemica spills Sewage and feedlots Radioactive wastes Hanford WA Pesticidesherbicidesfertilizers Ground water flow direction can change due to heavy pumping of a well Radioactive waste storage Yucca mountain Nevada Yucca mountain storage site for nuclear waste Need A nuclear waste site that WILL NOT FAIL at isolation waste from contact with water and biological organisms Controversy time frame for storage 20000 years to million of years Proposed site Yucca mountain Cost to study the site Cited concerns 1The area is faulted One of which produced an earthquake of mag 56 in 1992 Active 2the site has economic potential metals oil gas future exploration could release radioactive waste 1 Climates change Water table can change This is a concern because veins of calcite are found at the site evidence of more extensive ground water in ltration in the past Caves usually form in limestone and the chemical weathering is dissolution CHAPTER 15 OCEANS AND COASTAL PROCESS Why should we study the oceans 70 of earths surface Source of food Used for transport Drives hydrologic cycle In 1990 50 of the us population lived within 75km of a coast and by 2025 75 will Ocean water Salinity is the concentration of salt in seawater Approximately 35 The dissolved salt content is not constant and changes with location and depth the more evaporation the higher the concentration Temperature is strati ed varies with depth This varies with depth Warm less dense water oats on top of cold water You get salt water because water rains on stuff dissolves other minerals it goes into water then it evaporates and leaves the water behind Ocean currents Ocean currents move large amounts of water and heat by WindDriven Surface ocean circulation DensityDriven DeepOcean circulation Cold salty water tends to sink Warm less salty water rises Both redistribute het from warmer regions to cooler regions Landscapes beneath the sea Mapping sea oor by Satellite measurements Echo sounding pro les Side scan sonar Manned and unmanned submersibles Landscapes beneath the sea Continental margin Continental shelf A broad at platform extending from the shoreline to the beginning of the continental slope Continenta slop a steeper 4 deg typically mud draped slop marking the edge of the continental shelf dissected by submarine canyons and modi ed by turbidity currents Continenta rise a gently sloping apron of sediment formed by deposition of sands and muds at the base of the continental slop Abyssal plain this plain extends beyond the continental rise typically 46 km below sea level it is the attest surface on the earth may include submerged volcanoes called seamounts and guyots Abyssal hills linear ridges of basalt covered with a thin veneer of deep sea sediment on the anks of the mid ocean ridge Why map the ocean oors Mapping is used to locate hazards that may affect communication lines oil and gas pipes lines commercial and military transport rounds Hazards seamounts guyout areas are modi ed by mass wasting Tides Ocean tides are the result of the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun on the ocean Causes water to bulge outward on the side nearest the moon On the opposite side inertia created by earth s rotation causes ocean water to bulge outward in the opposite direction 2 oceanic bulges so 2 sets of tides daily When a location lies under a bulge it experiences a high tide when it passes under a depression it feels a low tide Extra low tides Neap Tide Extra high tides Spring Tide The difference between high and low tide varies in different parts of the ocean In Hawaii about 5 meter Open Ocean ln Puget Sound about 3 meter Tides constricted by land In Bay of Fundy Canada can be more than 12 meters Restricted wide opening to ocean the narrows Coastal erosion Preventing beach erosion Structural approaches EgtG Groins breakwater jetties typically cause increased erosion down current of structure Groins catch part of the river of sand from longshore drift Break water reduces local wave energy so sand is deposited not carried away Seawall and Rip Rap Sand bagging does work Nonstructural approaches Eg Beach nourishment land use planning Expensive but doesn39t cause erosion in new areas Beaches can be replenished by pumping in sand usually it doesn39t last more than a few years Why are the oceans salty Dissolution then evaporation Name two ways that causes ocean currents to move Wind Density What cause waves to break Height period What causes sediment to be moved along the coastline Wave refraction the wave base hits the oor and the becomes more parallel to the shore The transport of sediment along the shore is called Long shore drift 3 depositional coastal features and 4 erosional Depositional Tombola sand spit bay mouth bar Erosional Sea arches Barrier Island sea cave wave cut land terraces
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