Psychology 110 Chapters 13 & 15
Psychology 110 Chapters 13 & 15 PSYC 110 - 008
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
4/11/16 Psych Notes 4/11/16 Chapter 13: Social Psychology Attitudes - Attitude o Belief that includes an emotional component - Do attitudes predict behavior? o Yes and No… - Do attitudes predict behavior? o Correlation between attitudes and behavior across studies: 0.38 (0-1 scale) o Indicates that 60% of a person’s behavior is explained by factors other then their attitude Recall the effects of groups on behavior o More stable, reflexive attitudes are better predictors of behaviors Example: Less likelihood of attend a Gator’s game vs. a Palm Beach Makos game while on vacation o You’re a big Vol fan, so you have a strong attitude towards FL Gators o You’re more likely to go to a Makos game, because you don’t have as strong as an attitude towards the team o Better predictor of behavior among people low in self-monitoring Personality trait that assesses how well a person’s behavior matches their feelings and attitudes 4/11/16 s - Where do attitudes come from? o Availability heuristic Attitudes are “mental shortcuts” o Openness to experience o Emotional Reactivity - How do attitudes change? o Cognitive Dissonance Tension resulting from conflicting thoughts/beliefs Can change either thoughts, or come up with a way that they fit together o Example: Cognition A: “I’m an honest person” Change Cognition A: “I’m not an honest person after all” Cognition B: “I cheated on my psych exam” Change Cognition B: “I didn’t really cheat; I just saw someone’s answers” Generate Cognition C that reconciles A&B: “I had to cheat because the test was unfair” o Alternatives to cognitive dissonance theory Self-perception Theory People acquire attitudes by observing their own behavior Impression-management theory People don’t actually change their attitudes, but say they do to reduce conflict Persuasion - Two types of Persuasion: o Central Route Focus on details and thorough understanding Informational content o Peripheral Route Focus on snap judgments Surface aspects We tend to use this more often, because people 4/11/16 generally go straight for the thing that fits their attitude - Persuasion Techniques o Foot-in-the-door Make a small request before a larger one Example: o Car salesman tells a customer one price, underneath the customer’s budget o Then comes back later with a higher cost o Door-in-the-face Make a large request before a smaller one o Low-ball technique Start with lowest request, with additional add-ons Example: Taxes on goods, ask to go to dinner and then ask to stop for errand on the way Persuasion and Romance - Procedure to generate attraction and closeness among strangers - BB Article: o Speed dating set-up o Experimental procedure Some go about regular speed-dating People didn’t feel as close to the other person Others were given a set list of questions to ask People generally felt closer to the other person, and engaged in a more intimate conversation 4/11/16 Created/shaped an attitude towards the other person 4/13/16 Psych Notes 4/13/16 Chapter 13: Social Psychology Stereotype - Belief about the characteristics of individuals based on their membership in a group Prejudice - Negative conclusions about a person, group, or situation before evaluating evidence - Ultimate attribution error o Assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositions o Recall fundamental attribution error Our tendency to explain someone’s behavior based on internal factors, such as personality or disposition, and to underestimate the influence that external factors, such as situation influences, have on another person’s behavior 4/13/16 Biology of Prejudice - In-group bias o Tendency to favor individuals within our own group over those from outside our group o Increased activity in prefrontal cortex Example: Empathy, consideration - Out-group Homogeneity o Tendency to view all individuals outside of our group as similar o Increased activity in amygdala Example: fear, anxiety, quick judgments - Principle of Adaptive Conservatism o Distrust of anything unfamiliar or different can be adaptive o Prejudices can become prevalent through natural selection Discrimination - Negative behavior toward members of out groups o Explicit = Person is aware of their prejudice o Implicit = Person is unaware of their prejudice Can be measured using implicit associations test Test yourself: https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/ - Requires an established of how much difference is required to be part of out-group Creating Discrimination 4/13/16 - Minimal intergroup paradigm o Creating two groups based on random factors Example: eye color, handedness, performance on task o People will begin to favor members of their in-group… o …and begin to discriminate against out-group Example: Less sharing of resources, quicker response time on negative words on implicit associations test Combating Discrimination - Methods to decrease prejudice and discrimination: o Simply increase contact between members of different groups? o Groups must have: Shared goals Potential for close relationships Equal status among group members o Robbers cave http://www.simplypsychology.org/robbers-cave.html o Jigsaw classrooms https://www.jigsaw.org/ 4/15/16 Psych Notes 4/15/16 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Medical Model - Presence of physiological disease or illness based on: o Presence of foreign body in organism Example: Infection by parasite, bacteria, virus, or object o Impairment in body’s ability to maintain homeostasis Example: High blood pressure, kidney failure, liver failure o Deviation from normal or standard physiological functioning Example: Cancer, lupus, Cohn’s Disease - Diagnosis of physiological disease or illness based on: o Identity of foreign body in organism Example: HIV Virus, E. Coli, streptococcus o Similarity of symptoms to established category of medical illness Example: Constriction of veins in forehead + pain + fuzzy vision = migraine Head pain only + no impairment in vision + no foreign body/tumor = acute headache - Categories of Mental Disorders based on: o Statistical Rarity Indicates deviation from “standard” cognitive or behavior functioning in a given population o Presence of subjective distress o Impairment Interferes with ability of person to function in everyday life o Societal Disapproval Not always true, but indicates deviation from what given society considers “standard” functioning Failure Analysis Approach 4/15/16 - Approach to psychological disorders that considers mental illness as efforts to use adaptive behaviors in maladaptive ways or situations o Example: Depression Symptoms of depression are adaptive following times of crisis or trauma Lethargy, tearfulness, and sadness can help person obtain social support and connection following stressors Depression as a psychological disorder When symptoms stop fulfilling needs and begin to interfere with life functioning o Example: going back to work, forming friendships Diagnosing Psychological Disorders - Historically, mental illnesses attributed to demonic possession - Treated through religious rituals, such as exorcisms - Modern diagnoses of psychological disorders must account for: o Cultural context Example: Symptoms of schizophrenia might be considered disordered in US, but celebrated sign of ability to communicate with spirit realm in other cultures o Presence of Organic cause Example: Symptoms of depression can arise due to an underactive thyroid gland rather than cognitive processes - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) o Currently on 5 edition Must be updated regularly due: Changes in society and culture Better classification and identification of psychological disorders 4/15/16 o Contains all available categories, prevalence statistics, and symptoms of psychological disorders - Categorical Model o View that mental disorders differ from normal functioning in kind (rather than degree) o Disorder is either present or not o Different than other available diagnoses - Diagnosing Psychological Disorders o Dimensional Model View that mental disorders differ from normal functioning in degree (rather than kind) “Disorders” are just more extreme variants of normal psychological traits Anxiety Disorders - Psychological disorders in which sympathetic nervous system is activated in the absence of significant environmental stress - Subcategories: o Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Panic Disorder o Phobias o Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder o Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Continual feelings of worry, tension, and anxiety across many settings - Panic Disorder o Panic attacks: brief, intense episodes of extreme fear with physical symptoms of dizziness, light-headedness, chest pain, and feeling of impending death - Phobias o Intense fear of specific objects, places, or situations that cause change in behavior - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) o Lasting significant emotional disturbance following severely stressful event 4/15/16 - Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) o Repetitive or lengthy behaviors done to reduce stress caused by obsessive thoughts
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