First Week of Notes
First Week of Notes 01:830:305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by priitad on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:305 at Rutgers University taught by Musolino in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Cognition in Psychlogy at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
0 Three fundamental questions 1 What is our place in the universe 0 we used to think we were the center 0 now we know there are many universes 2 How are we related to other species 0 used to think we were separate from other species special somehow 0 now we know that we evolved over thousands of years from other species 3 What is the nature of our thoughts and our minds 0 What is the connection between mind and body and behavior 0 The MindBody Problem 0 There39s two parts to a human 0 a physical dimension to the human the body 0 and also a mind 0 How do these two relate to each other 0 The two deepest questions about the mind are 1 What makes intelligence possible How can a quotchunk of matterquot have intelligence Intelligence meaning the ability to reason and plan 2 What makes consciousness possible 0 Two causes of behavior or movement 1 Physical causes Matter physically moving due to laws of physics 2 Mental causes drives behavior through thought and mental processes gt Predicting the behavior of a pool ball vs the behavior of people cannot predict one the same way as the other 0 People are extremely complex and predicting behavior means assuming they have intentionsthoughts and beliefs once that assumption is made a prediction of behavior can be made 0 Mental causes play a large role in predicting human behavior because it is not caused just by physical laws 0 Consciousness 0 Not just selfawareness but the fact that there is something that Two separate realms physical vs mental Different views on the problem 0 Dualism 0 The idea that the mind and body are separate entities they are detachable O quotThis concept entails that our mind has a nonmaterial spiritual dimension that includes consciousness and possibly an eternal attributequot There is the physical body physical brain and something nonphysical that is the quotmind or soulquot 0 Very old concept gt Anubis ancient God of the dead known to quot weigh the heart to determine the fate of the soul quot 0 Classic example of dualism because even thousands of years ago people knew there was more than just the physical body gt Plato 0 One of the first dualists 0 Proposed that we are made up of immaterial immortal soul 0 On the soul 0 Thought there was a rational part to the soul as well as an appetite part and a spiritual part gt People thought there were multiple kind of souls 0 Free souls can leave the body like they thought dreams were 0 Body souls gt Aristotle 0 What property does the rabbit have that the rock doesn39t have that allows it to do what it does 0 On the soul 0 Nutritive soul kind that plants need need food to sustain 0 Sensitive soul animals have this kind of soul 0 Rational soul humans have this can grow and feed ourselves but are also rational because we can think and communicate like we suppose animals cannot gt Medieval Cosmology 0 Nothing is perfect on Earth but it gets more perfect as you move out into the other planets and finally God 0 Dualism for how we think of humans reflects to how we see the world 0 There is a body Earth 0 and a soul Heavens 0 Birth of the modern soul gt Rene Descartes rejection of the Aristotelian approach 0 No more quotformsquot quotessencesquot or other quotoccultquot forces at least for the physical world 0 We don39t need quot life soulsquot for lifelike phenomena anymore there were statues made to move like humans with just a push of a pedal 0 quotto explain these functions then it is not necessary to conceive of any vegetative or sensitive soul or any other principle of movement or life other than its blood and heat of fire that burns continuously in its heart and which is of the same nature as those fires that occur in inanimate objectsquot Limits of the mechanical philosophy 0 Language gt limitless possibility of combinations to express any idea we thought no statue that could do that 0 There is something more involved we are thinking conscious beings From this limit Rene came up with Two Substances 0 Res Extensa gt the body 0 Res Cogitans gt quotthe thinking substance quot The pineal gland 0 Rene thought the interaction between the soul and physicalness happened in the pineal gland Thought that consciousness does not exist in nonhuman animals treated as mechanical beings 0 Had things called quot Cat burning quot because they knew the cats screamed but thought they did not have feeling 0 Dualism Today gt quotAfter you die you will meet God quot 0 After you die some part of you will not die but will actually meet God because there is a mind or soul that will go on to live even if the body has died gt Dualism in Religion 0 The body might be created through living matter evolution but the quotspiritual soul is created directly by God quot gt Look at statistics from ppt O Dualism is the most prevalent view in the US 0 Idealism 0 Materialism
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