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Basic Adaptations to Physical Activity

by: Jeanne Arnson-Serotta

Basic Adaptations to Physical Activity KIN155

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN155 > Basic Adaptations to Physical Activity
Jeanne Arnson-Serotta
Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health
Anthony Musto

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About this Document

Class Notes from lectures on 2/2/15 and 2/4/15 which include notes on Basic Adaptations to Physical Activity
Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health
Anthony Musto
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeanne Arnson-Serotta on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN155 at University of Miami taught by Anthony Musto in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/11/15
Basic Adaptations to Physical Activity 0 Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle contraction that results in a substantial increase in energy expenditure above REE 0 Increase in energy expenditure must be significant enough to elicit health benefits 0 Exercise Physiology in a nutshell Physical and biochemical adaptations that occur in an effort to make physical activity more efficient 0 Energy comes from a substance called ATP adenosine triphosphate it is the only immediate energy source used to contract muscle 0 When a phosphate breaks off that is when energy is produced 0 Creatine phosphate gets delivered into your cell and it creates a phosphate to make ATP If you take creatine or have creatine in your diet you will increase your ability to do work and increase water inside the cell 0 We get that ATP is from fats and carbohydrates Everything we get is converted to ATP 0 When ATP levels get low we fatigue and muscle contraction fails When you39re on your 10th squat and you can hardly do it it s because your you don t have enough ATP for that muscle contraction to occur 0 When were at low intensity exercise your body is mostly utilizing fat Everytime you break down a fat molecule you get about 129 ATP but it is a long process As ATP builds fat is still used but it is too slow of a process so we continue on with breaking down of carbohydrates 0 As exervise intensity goes up we need ATP faster and faster so we start to break down carbs without oxygen to speed this process as fast as possible This creates lactic acid which gets us huffing and puffing and our legs start burning and we eventually stop We are not breaking down glucose fast enough so we have to slow down until we have more built up I We break down fats and carbohydrates to make ATP and this ATP allows us to have muscle contractions which then will pump up our cardio vascular system The more we contract muscles the more response we get Muscle Fiber Types 0 Type I O Fibers in our body called slow twitch because they respond very slowly 0 Are red because they carry hemoglobin and are therefore very oxidized and are very good at burning fat 0 We recruit these when we do low intensity things 0 People with high levels of these fibers tend to be better endurance athletes These fibers contract over and over again but they don t produce much force 0 Type II 0 Produce a lot of force but don t have much endurance and fatigue very quickly Break down glucose for anaerobic energy Type II A are type 2 fibers but have a little more endurance in them Type II B are white and fast twitch I Flucolytic I Fatigue quickly I Large force production 000 I Muscle Fiber Recruitment 0 Go from walking to jogging to sprinting Start with using type 1 fibers then move to type 2A and then type 2B 0 Walking I Low intensity I Breaking down fat 0 Running I As exervise intensity goes up my body uses oxygen to break down glucose Start to produce lactic acid but it hasn t accumulated yet 0 Sprinting I Then body produces a lot of glucose legs start to burn and I fatigue and have to stop 0 Brain sends a message to recruit even more Type 2 fibers Within seconds respiration is through the roof legs start burning etc 0 Cardiovascular System 0 Don t forget that the heart is a muscle that responds to all of these things and also needs to contract and have endurance O Essentially the cardiovascular system responds to provide the contracting muscle with the necessary oxygen and nutrients to supply ATP 0 Skeletal muscle takes oxygen into the blood and brings C02 in O V02 I How much oxygen used I How much physical work can someone do the higher someone is V02 is the more work they can do without fatiguing I V02 determines exercise intensity 1 MET is a V02 of 35 mlkgmin which is generally used at rest I 1 liter of 02 requires 5 calories I 1 MET 0175 calorieskg I Moderate activity is considered 36 METS So someone wants to use up to 6 times the amount of energy they use at rest when doing moderate activity I MET minutes you take the time you spent doing the activity and multiply by the Met level Go on treadmill at 3 METS for 20 minutes That s 60 MET minutes Using this you can practically equate different work outs Going on the treadmill at 3 METS for 20 minutes would be the same energy expenditure as going 4 METS for 15 minutes because that also equals 60 MET minutes 0 Responses to Acute Aerobic Exercise 0 Acute changes are the changes to the body that help you perform the activity right now Chronic changes are changes that happen over time due to physical activity We have a muscle contraction which increases ATP demand That increases 02 demand and our heart rate goes up beats per min to get more oxygen our stroke volume goes up amount of blood pumped per beat When we take our heartrate multiplied by our stroke volume multiplied by the amount of oxygen the muscle is extracting out that is what V02 equals All the changes we see during the onset of exercise is for muscle mass and muscle contractions When we have an increased demand for ATP we have an increased demand for oxygen Then we see an increase in heart rate how many beats per minute an increase in stroke volume how much it can beat per minute Cardiac output stroke volume how much it can beat per minute x heart rate beats per minute 0 Cardiovascular Response 0 000000 Heart pumps faster and squeezes harder so it can get more blood to the muscle and more oxygen to the muscle If my heart isn t trained for this you will fatigue faster Muscle perfusion increases how much oxygen can be pulled out of our blood and blood vessels open up wider so they can pull more oxygen outmore perfusion Also other muscles or organs that don t need as much blood the vessels there begin to constrict Vessels in leg muscle dilate vessels in arms constrict Blood pressure increases Stroke volume and Cardiac Output increase Blood owdistribution Oxygen consumption increases Ventilation rate and volume increases breathe faster and take in more air Chronic changes in the cardiovascular response I Permanent adaptations that make exercise easier from repeated behavior I The increased blood ow back to heart causes an eccentric hypertrophy of the heart chamber increasing its capacity I Vessels within the chamber of the heart and you grow more vessels as those walls become thicker and heart grows due to strength you need more blood ow The more you have the less likely you are to have a heart attack I Skeletal muscle improves at extracting oxygen and using oxygen increased capillary density increases mitochondria density increase myoglobin and increased aerobic enzymes I Muscle becomes better equipped to utilize fuel sources carbs and fat to produce ATP through aerobic metabolism 0 Chronic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise Training 0 At a given submaximal effort not hardest you can go 0 With acute adaptations compared to rest many things increase But chronically as my body adapts to this over and over we become so efficient at taking in oxygen and breaking down fuel our hear rate decreases blood pressure decreases oxygen transport increases ventilation decreases Changes in Skeletal Muscle with Resistance Training weight training 0 Muscle fiber recruitment increases 0 Muscle fiber size increases hypertrophy 0 Mitochondrial volume decreases 0 Capillary volume may decrease 0 Anaerobic enzyme activity increases 0 ATPCPGlycogen stores increase 0 Growth hormone and testosterone levels increase 0 Neural and physical adaptations are specific to the type of resistance training involving takes about 68 weeks for these to form


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