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COM 202 Week 3 notes

by: Taylor McAvoy

COM 202 Week 3 notes COM 202A

Taylor McAvoy
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These notes cover both lectures during week 3 and may be helpful for studying for our upcoming Midterm! Stay tuned for Week 3 study questions and a Midterm study guide! Thanks and happy studying!
Intro to Communications II
Malcolm Parks
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 202A at University of Washington taught by Malcolm Parks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications II in Communication Studies at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 04/15/16
Week 3 Lecture 5 Tuesday, April 12, 2016 Language is continually being modified and specialized to meet the needs of users Grammar/ syntax changes the slowest and informal slang changes the quickest Romantic relationships are stronger with specialized relational talk- use nick names and terms of endearment Slang and Colloquialisms- informal language used by people who belong to the same group or share the same interests Sharing slang reinforces group membership- who's in, who's not It is difficult to separate from technical jargon but generally less precise, more informal, and changes very quickly Language is intertwined with culture and identity At a certain level, changing languages changes a part of who you are People who use different languages show different parts of themselves in each Roughly 50% of the world's 6,000 to 7,000 languages are in danger of extinction because a. They're either being replaced because the last people speaking the language die b. Or because people are using more widely spoken languages for economic or political reasons What is lost and/or gained when languages go extinct? Culture in communication and communication in culture Standard definitions of culture 1. Culture- a unique combination of rituals, religious beliefs, ways of thinking, and ways of behaving that unify a group of people 2. Co-Culture- a group that exists within a larger, dominant culture but differs from it in one or more significant ways (replaces "subculture") Cultures and Co-Cultures mix and influence each other as never before in history  Fueled by migration, isolation, invasion, colonization, travel, and communication This makes culture both less important and more important at the same time How can it be both less and more important at the same time? Because we have such diverse interaction almost constantly   More and more of us are having intercultural experiences Standard approaches to intercultural communication  We tend to focus on visible things like words, food, and dress Improving communication using this approach 1. Learning language (including pronunciation) 2. Learning typical values and attitudes of a culture 3. Learning customs and etiquette 4. Identify common errors made by people from your culture when dealing with the other culture Small differences can make a big difference Social identity theory reminds us that surface factors count  We use them to instantly classify in-group and out-group members  And that triggers differences in the way we feel and interact with people EX: Jay-z on Charlie Rose show in December 2010 Miss pronunciation of Tupac Shibboleth- A word whose pronunciation identifies the speaker as being a member or not a member of a particular group EX: Haiti- French/ Creole Dominican republic- Spanish Parsley- Perejil October 1937- The Dominican Republic president Rafael Trujillo wanted to get rid of people of Haitian decent who lived along the border so he ordered his soldiers to hold up a spring of parsley and ask what it was. They assumed that the people who could not pronounce the word correctly were Haitian. Those who failed were killed. 20,000 people were killed during a five day period. Anything can function as a shibboleth- pitch, pace of speech, even dress can mark a cultural group Looking for deeper dimensions of difference Individualism vs collectivism Individualism- people see themselves as independent, favor personal goals and values over group goals and values. They think that it is right to follow personal beliefs and to leave groups if they have differences. They value directness and clarity Collectivism- People see their identities in terms of the group, prioritize relationships over individual goals, emphasize loyalty to group over personal desires, and follow group norms and rules. They value indirectness if it preserves "face" for the group. Vertical vs Horizontal Vertical cultures- emphasize power differences, hierarchy, acceptance of inequalities between individuals and groups, loyalty to one's own group Horizontal cultures- seek to minimize power differences, reduce hierarchy, inequalities not seen as fixed, emphasize equality between people Map- IDV- Individualism/ Collectivism Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions Individualistic- North America, Europe, Australia Collectivistic- South America, Russia, Asia This model doesn't sort out nice patters in people because most people fall somewhere in the middle between individualism and collectivism An alternative approach Culture as ambient communication "ambient"- Atmospheric- just there Ambient music is soft music played in the background Culture is something you take for granted  Information that you hear many times and in many places  Information that you assume everybody knows Paradox of intercultural communication  You are not aware what you take for granted  So the things that outsiders need to know most about your culture are the hardest to explain because you are less aware of them When you communicate, you take culture for granted and say only what you need to  Culture and background come out when you speak EX: Thinking of my home in Ch'ang while traveling with the Army on the Ninth Poem by ts'en Shen (715-770) It makes more sense when you take into account the culture behind the poem's references EX: Seattle Times 1/15/16 cartoon The joke was a reference to the 1997 movie Independence day- Alien ship still in tact Culture allows you to draw on the resource of shared understandings So what?  It is about differences in the way words and behaviors are interpreted  But examples like this show how shared culture is a resource that allows people to communicate deeper meanings- meanings that refer to things not being said directly EX: when you "separate wheat from the chaff" you… Decide what's important- agricultural phrase Examples as common idioms Much of the knowledge we refer to in communication is not said and commonly understood Understanding cultural differences goes beyond language and customs Real differences are hard to talk about because they are ambient Cultural assumptions form a basis for ways of convincing people, and for evaluating what they say and who they are Culture is a tool kit for creating shared meanings How can we improve communication between cultures 1. Understand our own attitudes and prejudices- avoid ethnocentrisms 2. Don’t stereotype 3. Be sensitive 4. Value diversity What works 1. Positive attitude: curiosity and sense of humor, managing one's own anxiety 2. Actively seek and give descriptive feedback- what you mean- ask questions 3. Pay particular attention to non-verbal expressions 4. Ask for help when needed 5. Focus on shared tasks- on what each person is trying to accomplish- build on shared ways of doing things  Don’t need understanding of other's culture to work together  Do understand how each approaches a task 6. Find preferred codes- writing may be better than speaking sometimes 7. Most important: focus on the individual not the culture Communication with another person from another culture is just like communication with someone from your own culture only more so Week 3 Lecture 6 Thursday, April 14, 2016 Nonverbal communication Goals 1. Identify major types of nonverbal codes- ways of communicating 2. Briefly explore an application: Spotting lies (deception) Six major types of nonverbal codes 1. Body movement 2. Proxemics 3. Chronemics 4. Tactile 5. Paralinguistic cues 6. Objects and artifacts 1. Body movement and facial expression These are called Kinesic codes  Includes facial expression, movements, postures, gestures, and body movement There are five major types of kinesic codes a. Affect displays b. Emblems c. Illustrators d. Regulators A. Affect displays (affect = emotion)  Displays of emotion on the face, but may involve other parts of the body as well  We are capable of thousands of expressions but Six most recognizable are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness  Seem to be universal, Panhuman= displayed the same across cultures  Some cultures value open display of emotion and others do not  Basic six expressions are shared in all cultures but some triggers are different  May also involve body changes like blushing or stomping feet B. Emblems  Gestures that have more or less standardized meanings and can substitute for words C. Illustrators  Gestures that go along with and reinforce verbal messages  Not standardized and cannot stand alone  Always go with speech  We use illustrators even when the person we're speaking to can't see us- cell phones D. Adaptors  Nonverbal movements involving touching one's own body  Thought to be related to anxiety of attention to some other inner state E. Regulators  Nonverbal movements that control the pace or direction of interaction  May include gestures, facial expressions, body orientation, tone of voice  People use them to signal it is their turn to talk, they do not want to be interrupted, they want to leave or come closer-- turn taking cues Examples  Dance is the ultimate form of regulation- cues from partner  Basketball- the no look pass  The too small dorm room or kitchen- learn other person's cues 2. Proxemics- The use of space and distance to send messages  Humans are territorial and mark defined space  We judge status based on how much space someone controls- ex: office vs cubicle  Space when we talk to people is different based on our relationships with them- public, social, personal and intimate space  These distances when speaking to people are culturally influenced  Affects comfort and relationship  Proxemic codes are very sensitive to individual, gender, and cultural differences 3. Chronemics- The organization and use of time for communication  Includes our expectations for how time should be organized- one activity at a time (monochromic) vs multi-tasking with several activities at once (polychromic) EX: texting when we should be talking Includes rules and expectations about:  How events should be sequenced (can you just ask someone out or should you text first?)  How long events should last (How long do you have to stay at the family dinner table after you've finished before you can leave?)  How quickly something should happen (how long can you delay responding to a text or voice message?) 4. Tactile communication- communicating using touch a. The first communication code we learn b. Touch from caregivers is essential for babies and infants to thrive c. Touch is important both in rituals and in expressing support and affection d. Large cultural and gender differences in the use of touch  Women touch and are touched more often  Women touch men more than men touch women  Large cultural difference - (Spanish > U.S. > Japan) e. Touch also conveys power- the more powerful people touch the less powerful people  Being touched inappropriately is also linked to abuse and discrimination Technology and tactile communication  Smartphones that vibrate when you get a text or call  Feedback on video game controllers  Like-a-Hug- demonstration project by Melissa Kit Chow at M.I.T 5. Paralinguistic cues- vocal but nonverbal  Includes pitch, rate, inflection, volume, pronunciation, silence  We often judge people according to slow/fast, loud/soft,  Influences our attention  Judgements of intimacy, power  Can be sounds alone (cries, lauging) but usually accompany speech 6. Objects and artifacts (artifactual codes) Types: a. Personal artifacts  Hair styles, jewelry, body art, piercing, clothing  Objects that are associated with us as individuals b. Shared artifacts  Things we use with others  Houses, offices, cars c. Public artifacts  Architecture, urban design, and things typical of place or culture  Ex: Seattle is associated with Pike's Place Market Application- Spotting lies (deception) Many have been suggested that nonverbal cues hold the key to detecting lies  Breaking eye contact  Rolling eyes up  Fidgeting while voice is calm- our voice is best when lying  Variations in voice- tremors- something seems off but not pinpoint recognizable  Licking lips  Long pauses- have to think about it and make something up Many businesses use lie detectors to test employees Some require a lie detector test to be considered for employment There's an app for that Over 160 airports in the U.S. are using SPOT (Screening Passengers by Observation Technique) SPOT relies on watching for nonverbal signs that someone might be a security threat or hiding something As of 2 years ago we spent $1 billion on this program and caught 0 terrorists and only a few smugglers None of these techniques really work Humans are poor lie detectors  No reliable nonverbal signs of deception  No technology has been shown to boost lie detection much above chance  Lie detectors detect physiological arousal but are unreliable  Law enforcement uses relentless questioning and wearing down the suspect


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