Life 103 Week 12
Life 103 Week 12 LIFE 103
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Dietary Strategies & Digestion • all animals are ingestive heterotrophs • why eat? —obtain chemical energy, organic molecules, essential nutrients —support survival, growth, and reproduction • 3 molecules are sources of energy, building blocks, and essential nutrients —carbohydrates —proteins —lipids • journey through digestive tract —ingestion —digestion —absorption —elimination dietary generalists vs specialists • —larger animals tend to be generalists so they can support metabolic needs —specialists tend to be small and herbivorous or parasitic • modes of feeding —ﬁlter feeding —substrate feeding (eating what you live on, ex. caterpillars) —ﬂuid feeding (ex. nectar feeders like butterﬂies) —bulk feeding (eating pieces of other organisms or swallowing them whole) • how to get and consume prey —carnivores A. venom: immobilize relatively large prey B. projectiles: grab prey from distance, usually utilizes tongue —herbivores A. nectar feeders: specialized long mouth parts and hovering capability B. plants invest in toxins to prevent animals eating unripened fruit C. leaves: abundant and easy to obtain but low in nutrients, so large quantities must be eaten (symbiotic bacteria, protozoans, or fungi help with digestion of cellulose) —omnivores A. oportunistic —others A. mycophage: fungi B. coprophage: feces C. scavengers and decomposers: dead and decaying material D. parasites • for every 1 human cell there are 9 other cells • gut biodiversity linked to —nutrient absorption —obesity —autoimmune disorders and mental health Circulation • 3 components of circulatory system —circulatory ﬂuid: carries nutrients and (possibly) oxygen and wastes —system of vessels: ﬂuid transport —pump (heart): uses metabolic energy to generate pressure to move ﬂuids • interstitial ﬂuid - solution that bathes and surrounds tissue cells of multicellular animals • open vs closed system —open: hemolymph is the ﬂuid all cells are in contact with for exchange, metabolically cheaper but lower pressure means less efﬁcient delivery of oxygen to tissues —closed: circulatory ﬂuid is blood, exchange between blood and interstitial ﬂuids, more metabolically costly but higher pressure means more effective delivery of oxygen • components of closed circulatory system —arteries: carry blood away from heart —capillaries: site of exchange with tissues —veins: carry blood to heart (valves) • single loop circulatory system —simple pump: single atrium and vessel, blood loops in and out of heart —blood oxygenated in gills —sharks, rays, and ray ﬁnned ﬁsh have these double loop circulatory system (frogs and most reptiles) • —two atria: receive blood into heart —*single ventricle: pumps blood out of heart —blood oxygenated in pulmocutaneous circuit (lungs and skin/gills) • double loop circulatory system (mammals and birds) —two atria: receive blood into heart —*two ventricles: pump blood out of heart —blood oxygenated in lungs —no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood for maximized efﬁciency due to high metabolic rates of mammals • how is oxygen carried? —blood carries oxygen via special reversible oxygen binding molecules (proteins) A. hemoglobin (vertebrates): iron incorporated into red blood cells B. hemocyanin (crustaceans, some mollusks): copper suspended in blood • reversible nature of hemoglobin - Bohr effect —picks up 4 O2 molecules in high O2 and high pH environments —releases O2 in deoxygenated, low pH tissues via diffusion • fetal hemoglobin oxygen afﬁnity is high, fetus can take oxygenated blood from mother • ﬂuid ﬂow through circulatory systems generates force —systolic pressure: pressure in blood vessels when heart contracts —diastolic pressure: pressure in blood vessels when heart relaxes —velocity in capillaries decreases rapidly because cross-section of veins is larger than that of arteries —opposing forces: blood pressure and osmotic pressure—>net loss of ﬂuid from capillary beds • lymphatic system - network of tissues and organs that help rid body of wastes and toxins by transporting lymph, a ﬂuid containing white blood cells
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