February 10 Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amalia Cristiano on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 22166 at San Diego State University taught by Eric Smigel in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
February 10 2015 Racial Ideologies and Scienti c Racism The Western world became obsessed with race in the 1800s There was the sense that some races were superior and others inferior Nazis argued that Jews were a different and lesser race who did not belong in Europe People believed this could be proven scientifically biological differences Today we know that there is only one race biologically the human race Any difference between people otherwise accounts for less than 2 Social Darwinism Misapplication of Darwin s theory of natural selection 1859 Darwin published On the Origins of Species Darwin claimed that species are constantly in a struggle for survival individuals over time change mutate to better adapt to their environments which allows for reproduction and assimilation He argued that higher forms of life emerged and humanity was the highest and most complex Social Darwinism applies this framework to humans would describe national peoples as distinct races German race Russian race In the struggle for survival some national peoples would prevail and others would go under Herbert Spencer English writerphilosopher Argued some individuals are more evolved than others thus they deserved to dominate Darwinists used circular logic pointed to those who were wealthy and powerful as evidence of this theory Applied this theory to nationstates also Said that GermanyGreat Britain were superior because prior to WI they were the most powerful nations in the world They were the best adapted to their environment Removed morality from human affairs as well as reason biological determination Orientalism mid1800s The study of what Europeans called The Orient meaning anything to the east of Europe Max Muller was a German orientalist in the 1840s1850s He was mostly a student of languages and helped confirm that the languages of India and Europe had a lot in common He came up with lists of words that had a similar meaning EX In Sanskrit the word for God is Deua In Spanish it is Dios In French Diem In the Roman Empire Deus In addition in Sanskrit Arya means land of the noble and Aryans were the inhabitants of this land Iran means land of the blessed Thus the peoples of northern India and elsewhere had a set of common ancestors The Caucasus were a mountain region of Russia were the Caucasians came from They eventually dispersed and moved to different areas of Europe and India taking with them their languages hence the similarities Aryan Myth Orientalists began to form this based on ancient poems songs and stories Idea that the ancient Aryan people were unique and impressive They were activewarlikecreative technology Argued that Aryans not only migrated but conquered wherever they went Also supposedly physically biggerlighterskinned Europeans thought of themselves as descendants of the Aryans especially the German Gobineau French racial philosopher Published a book and essay titled Essay on the Inequality of Race Claimed all humans identifythink in terms of race and race difference Being aware of these differences is what makes us human dangerous to deny it He claimed 3 fundamental races existed black white and yellow Around the edges of these groups existed subdivisions which were noticeable by skin color This laid the framework for Social Darwinism Claimed the white race was clearly superior to the other two Evidence was great accomplishments of Europeans such as the telegraph and other industrialization era technologies Argued that IndiansArabs part of white race but weakened over time from race mixing Gobineau believed one maintained racial purity by avoiding race mixing white Europeans more pure thus more superior However it was the Aryans who had done the best job he meant Germans English Swedes Dutch Danes His book was a bestseller Nazis targeted Jews because they were a threat to Germany s racial purity Richard Wagner Wagner was a composer and musician who composed operas a popular form of entertainment at the time He committed himself to Aryan myth and wanted to use music and stories to express it Used stories from old Germanic myths Believed these stories would be stronger with music because it affects people at sub rational level captures essence of life Wagner believed his modern world was becoming too mechanical humans becoming machines but with Germanic tribesstories and music we could change that Helped instill the idea of the romantic outsider a young man struggling against all odds at great personal cost to improve human life Hitler perceived himself as a romantic outsider Wagner s musicideas inspired Wagnerism a type of cult Wagnerites argued that German culture especially music was the best ever produced which re ected German racial superiority The best music composers particularly classical were all German Bay Reut In Bavaria where Wagner s music was produced and shown at an annual festival Wagner s most famous tune was Ride of the Valkries figures from ancient Germanic myth This music was also politically supported Germany became a unified state for first time in 1871 This music in 1880s1890s defined German nationalism and their valuesideals Kaiser Wilhem II was very interested in this he was the leader of the 2nd Reich He fully supported the notion that German culture was superior Hitler also devoted to Wagner s music made annual music festival in Bay Reut a national holiday After WWII festival was banned by the Americans because of its dangerous levels of nationalism It was not done again until the 1960s Houston Stewart Chamberlain English He wanted to be German so he moved to Bay Reut and married Wagner s daughter In 1899 published Foundations of the 19th Century Wanted to show where all the great achievements of the 19th century came from Explained Germans as being responsible for it all He hoped in the 20th century German dominance would continue but they had to deal with the Jews first He also claimed the Germans were the source of all light order and creativity while the Jews were dark and chaotic Claimed Christianity did not grow out of Judaism but rather was begun by a German and that Jesus was German He also envisioned a final battle between Germans and Jews If Germans prevailed they would continue on as before But if the Jews prevailed Europe would descend into chaos His book was a bestseller in Germany Top Nazis read the book although Hitler not so much When Chamberlain learned of Hitler he said that he had the right idea Craniometry There was a push to prove that races differ scientifically One way of this was measuring skulls and observing size and shape Samuel George Morton was a prominent American craniologist who believed you could prove Europeans were superior by their skulls He used crude methods Claimed the size of the skull cavity is a re ection of the size of your brain and the larger one s brain the more intelligent a person is He measured skull cavities using beans Morton found that peoples of Europe did indeed have larger skull cavities proved only that Europeans had bigger heads because they had bigger bodies because they had a more stable and meatbased food source Morton also thought shape was important He looked for harmonious facial features and an even at plain from forehead to chin All of this led to racial hierarchies Racial Hierarchies 1 The superior people in Europe were the Nordic Teutonic or Aryan peoples they were the most racially pure 2 Alpine peoples included French Austrians northern Italy Basically Nordic but somewhat weaker from centuries of race mixing 3 Mediterranean peoples Spanish southern Italy Greeks Irish 4 Slavic peoples Russians Polish Eastern Europeans 5 J ews they belonged to a separate racial category altogether Not native to Europe did not belong EugenicsAmerican Immigration Major wave of immigration from 18801920s from Europe to America Vast majority from southerneastern Europe Many Jewish Most earlier immigrations were from more Nordic countries Americans were concerned that these new immigrants would biologically weaken US The Passing of the Great Race by American pseudoscientist Madison Grant was published in 1916 and was a precursor the Immigration Act of 1924 Claimed that Americans were becoming racially impure Very popular book Eugenics selective breeding Used in agriculture and livestock but applied to humanity Late 1800s considered by Europeans but never legally put into practice until the Holocaust Basically said that inferior people should not be allowed to breed because it weakens the overall race Inferiors included handicapped and genetic disabilities such as mental or physical illness Intelligence tests were invented in the early 20th century to identify stupid people and prevent them from breeding came up with terms like morons and imbeciles Some states in the US did enforce this but not really enforced in Europe In 1924 the Immigration Act was passed in the United States in an effort to uphold purity in America Encouraged immigrants from Nordic countries and discouraged immigrants from eastern southern Europe they had smaller quotas Remained in effect until 1965 February 10 2015 HaightAshbury district of San Francisco lowrent district in San Francisco in the 1960s where the hippies lived 710 Ashbury Street where the Grateful Dead lived and would host jam sessions The Family Dog A Tribute to Dr Strange In San Francisco at Longshoreman Hall on Fisherman s Wharf October 16 1965 Chet Helms 19422005 The founder of Family Dog productions They held rock and roll concerts and began formalizing jam sessions by charging people to come listen Terms Jam Band an informal musical ensemble that engages in group improvisation Dynamics level of musical volume loudnesssoftness CrescendoDecrescendo process of gradually getting louder crescendo or quieter decrescendo Reverberation artificial echo enhancement Cadence the closing of musical piece Alton Kelley 19402008 artist for Family Dog productions Rick Grif n 19441991 another artist for Family Dog Victor Moscoso 1936 another artist for Family Dog San Francisco Diggers 19661968 Theatrical group out of the HaightAshbury district who set up a free store San Francisco Oracle 19661968 Founded by Allen Cohen 19402004 About 12 issues put out total Contained writing poetry drawings Love Pageant Rally Golden Gate park Oct 6 1966 Occurred on the same day LSD was made illegal Rolling Stone Magazine 1967 Came out of the HaightAshbury district Ralph Gleason founded it he had previously written for San Francisco Chronicle San Fran s equivalent to the New York Times Herb Caen 19161997 The San Francisco Chronicle Coined the term Beat Made the term hippie popular Hunter S Thompson 1937 2005 Wrote for the New York Times magazine Talked about HaightAshbury before the Summer of Love when tourists were already beginning to pour in and rent prices were going up Time Magazine July 7 1967 Cover story is about HaightAshbury when the scene really blew up The Jefferson Airplane 1966 Founded by Marty Balen Tribute to blues musicians including Miles DaVis Notionconcept of ight Most commercially popular band to come out of district Most popular song was White Rabbit based on Alice in Wonderland Grace Slick lead singer Miles Davis Sketches of Spain 1960 Fusion of jazz and Spanish folk music that inspired bands like Jefferson Airplane
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