Developmental Psych Week 2 Lectures
Developmental Psych Week 2 Lectures PSYC 2013
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This 81 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aisha Notetaker on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2013 at George Washington University taught by Peg Barratt in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
BVBIDIIIIIEIIHII PSVGIIDIDQV 2013 OFFICE HOURS by appointment and Prof Peg Barratt Mondays 330500 Tuesdays 11301230 Room 205 Psychology GTA Hannah Snyder Thursdays 100300 Room 208 Psychology January 20 2015 What was the paleo diet Ate berries nuts and plants Grassfed animals small fish fruit eggs Did they eat grains No Did they eat milk No dairy How did it work out for them Their brains weren t as big as ours today because we have more nutrients and proteins in our diets People didn t live that long Once we introduced grains people got shorter but lived longer Calcium depletion older people need more Iron deficiency women need more bc of menstruation Some evidence shows that eating during the day reduces obesity Initiative V guilt Initiative kid tries to pour their own juice or bring plates to the table amp breaking it parents say thanks for helping lets clean this up Guilt kid gets yelled at for breaking stuff so they feel guilty and shrink lllllz What nsvcllosocial stage Eriksonl are Ilresclloolers in 1 Identify a question of scientific interest I39m curious about I wonder if 2 Form a hypothesis it is hypothesized that 39 Young adults Whose parents who divorced have more difficulty establishing a steady relationship later in life Babies Who are breast fed are more securely attached to their mothers You turn a question into a statement that you ll test 3 Choose a research METHOD 39 How are you going to measure this around 2200 And a research DESIGN Are you comparing something What definitions are you including Time span Age groups 4 Collect DATA to test the hypothesis Sample smaller group that you re getting data from Should be representative of Who you re generalizing to Population All the people you want to generalize to Procedure How are we gonna find these people How Will we get the data 5 Draw conclusions form new questions Statistical analyses Is this worth talking about Is it statistically significant Peer review other people look at your work and make re ections about it Any study that uses federal funds must use 39 Institutional Review Board IRB Protection from harm do no harm Informed consent You need to let the participant know What they re getting into Tell them the procedure Let them know participation is VOLUNTARY Minors need permission from parents Kids can give assent aka they agree to participate Confidentiality Don t publish their name or any personal info Deception and debriefing 39 Not unreasonable to not tell them to prevent the study from being confounded 41ish 39 Questionnaire survey With answer choices 39 Interview more open ended than questionnaire 39 Observations Ethnographic research Case studies Biological measurements fMRI MRI EEG sweat response etc Experiment Natural experiment looking at things that naturally occur in the environment and how it affects Lower level apartments have asbestos noise stress etc Methods Ill 30 stunned 4210 Independent variable What you re going to change Dependent variable The impact Interventions Type of study Where you see how something impacts or negatively Headstart impact on early childhood education Natural experiments Reliability Validity We like to make sure we don t have mistakes that would affect the outcome Consistency of measurement Lack of error in measurement Reproducibility of measurement neliahilitv T estretest reliability do it again Interrater reliability would you get different answers if you use different people Having more than one person take a look at it now can we estimate reliability Truthfulness of the measure Does it measure What it Claims to measure Compare the new measure With an old standby measure If they re similar it s pretty reliable Have experts consider the content They judge if your measures are valid now can we estimate validity Cross sectional designs 39 Over different age groups 3 4 5 6 Correlations are difficult to interpret Relationship btW heightweight isn t always 1 to 1 80 high Measure of the amount of a relationship 80 is strongly related 20 is weakly related 20 weak inverse relationship 80 strong inverse relationship What III we mean by a correlation What causes What What about a third variable Correlation I088 IIOI iman causation Same people followed over time Cohort effects people in similar age groups have the same patterns of development etc longitudinal I39BSB I39GII 39 years 918years 1827 years Sequential quotBSi ll IIOI ill VOIII39 100k BVBIDIIIIIEIIHII PSVGIIDIDQV 2013 OFFICE HOURS by appointment and Prof Peg Barratt Mondays 330500 Tuesdays 11301230 Room 205 Psychology GTA Hannah Snyder Thursdays 100300 Room 208 Psychology January 22 2015 What was the paleo diet 39 Upper Paleolithic period 10000 to 40000 years ago Lithic 2 stone 0 Did they eat grains ariculture 8000 years a0 Did they eat milk cattle domesticated 00 years ago How did it work out for them They were shorter once grainmilk was introduced What is our takehome message Humans will eat Whatever is put in front of them Informed consent Institutional BBViBW Board around115l Use the word research 39 Make sure the person knows participation is voluntary Your choice to participate will not impact gradeservices You can write a paper instead Describe the purpose of study we re interested in we would like to know more about Procedure of study Risksbenefits Confidentiality I m not going to share this info with anybody Point of contact if there are questions who do we follow up to You and the university research committee thing 39 You will be observing family dinner hour in the homes of 5 year olds to better understand the roots of eating behavior obesity and eating disorders You will make notes about What you see and make an audio recording to jog your memory later No deception is involved 39 Draft a consent form for participation in this study 39 Who approves the consent form 39 Who decides if the consent form is valid 39 Who signs it The IRB BE SPECIFIC TO THE STUDY You are part of GWU research Say that in your consent form Independent variable 39 What you Change RANDOM ASSIGNMENT 39 Ensures validity Randomization Not systematic Dependent variable The impact MDI39B 0 BXIIBI39iIIIBIIIS stunned 1335 Reliability can be redone with similar results Validity measures What its supposed to measure Consistency of measurement Lack of error in measurement Reproducibility of measurement BeliahiliW Testretast reliability Interrater reliability now can we estimate reliability Truthfulness of the measure Does it measure What it claims to measure You HAVE to have reliability to be valid You re not neee valid if you re reliable ValidiW Compare the new measure With an old standby measure Have experts consider the content now can we estimate validity Cross sectional designs Correlations are difficult to interpret Measure of the amount of a relationship 80 is strongly related 20 is weakly related 20 weak inverse relationship 80 strong inverse relationship What III we mean by a correlation What causes what There could be a link btw two variables but it doesn t mean they cause the other What about a third variable Genetic effects might take place Family impacts bc of physical punishments etc correlation I088 IIOI imnlv causation Same people followed over time Cohort effects 39 People who grew up in the depression were frugal forever Teens who grew up during 911 and Kennedy s assassination were different from today longitudinal I39BSB I39GII 39 years 918years 1827 years This makes it easier to continue the study over a long period of time Combo of longitudinal and cross sectional Consent forms need to be renewed often Sequential quotBSi ll IIOI ill VOIII39 300k chanter 2 GBIIBIiB IIIIIIIBIIGBS 0 BVBIOIIIIIBIII Genotype genetic information What you re born with Phenotype physical manifestation 39 How you appear bc of your environment Dying your hair 39 Colored contacts 23 pairs of chromosomes 39 Half from mom half from dad Crossover long strings of genes that get tangled and make the number of possibilities of What you get from mom amp dad infinite Each chromosome has genes Segment of DNA that codes instructions Dimplesno dimples 39 Dimples are dominant Only one parent needs to have it Roll tonguecannot roll tongue Brown eyesblue eyes If you give birth to blue and you re brown you carry a recessive gene Traits with single gene inheritance Common in tropical places and African americans SS SS SS lt you have sickle cell gtquotdon t commit incest bc you ll die 23000 genes way less than we Xp Ct d we thought them would be 100000 l8 Human Genome Proiect XX XY H untington s is dominant you have 50 Chance of getting it Bald grandfather passes it on to daughter to son Xlinked inheritance e g hemophilia One normal one covers it up amp balances it out Sex linked disorders Male pattern baldness 39 Color blindness l8 SEX BIII39IIIIIIISDIIIBS Concordance rate if your twin has schizo your chance of getting it is 50 If you re fraternal you have 18 chance Schizophrenia Identical twins M2 50 Fraternal twins DZ 18 There s a strong genetic component to schizo Example menstruation usually begins 1116 years Range is set by genetics but the environment affects it Illness postpones When you start Nutrition poorer dietslow protein delays it Weight loss delays it Exercise athletes get it later Passive parents provide both They give genes supportreading environment Evocative genetic endowment evokes certain responses The child is born With interesttalents so parents give them more books Pretty baby parents put her in a beauty pageant Active nichepicking You actively seek out environments GenomeEnvironment effects Ova and sperm Zygote Twins The birds and the bees WIIBI39B I0 babies come from BVBIDIIIIIEIIHII PSVGIIDIDQV 2013 OFFICE HOURS by appointment and Prof Peg Barratt Mondays 330500 Tuesdays 11301230 Room 205 Psychology GTA Hannah Snyder Thursdays 100300 Room 208 Psychology January 27 2015 Young adulthood adolescence Impact of culture NatureNurture Siblings birth order twins Personality development Learning in infancy memories of infancy HBI B is some If what Will want I0 know How early experiences in uence later development Divorce single parent families Language development Brain development neuroscience Development of mental illness intellectual disabilities Impact of child abuse domestic violence Impact of food obesity breast feeding Sexuality in human development Poverty social class and their impact Attachment Parenting and its in uence Early childhood education MentalCognitive development Emotions Depression learning disabilities ADHDADD autism Prenatal development Effects of illness Impact of gender Informed consent It is research Participation is voluntary Will not impact serVices Propose of study Procedure of study Risksbenefits Confidentiality Point of contact chanter 2 GBIIBIiB IIIIIIIBIIGBS 0 BVBIOIIIIIBIII Genotype genetic info Phenotype how your genes appear Dimplesno dimples R011 tonguecannot r011 tongue Brown ayesblua eyes Tay Sachs more common in French Canadians and Ashkenazi Jewish People Cystic Fibrosis mucous in the lungs abnormal body secretions 39 Recessive PK U Phenoketonuria less common in African Americans 39 Form of mental retardation If they test positive they can eat a special diet to prevent the toxic substance from spreadingmanifesting Genetic counseling getting tested to see if your babies Will have certain diseases SS 88 protactad from malaria 88 this parson has it Duehene Muscular Dystrophy Hemophilia if you re a girl you have 1 X to balance it out Guys with just one have it H untington s Disease late 30s 40s 39 Mental Physical gradually deteriorate Marfan Syndrome 39 Connective tissue problems makes you really tall or have a distorted face Abe Lincoln might have had this Passive parents provide both Evocative genetic endowment evokes certain responses Active nichepicking You choose opportunities that are like your genes GenomeEnvironment effects Identical twins who were separated at birth They both had alot of similar behaviors and attributes gtIltreVieW this The ova and the sperm the journey p57 Ova has half the genes from the mom It travels down the fallopian tube It contains nourishment to survive for a month 39 Sperm makes journey up vagina and thru fallopian tube Zygote ova and sperm together Implantation Twins older mothers might have fraternal They also run in families The birds and the bees WIIBI39B I0 babies come from Pill 17 Female sterilization 17 effective but not reversible Male condom 11 Male sterilization 6 IUDs 3 Withdrawal 3 COIIGBIlliOII and contracention IISB rounded IN THE quotS 0va Hormone injections 2 day after pill Vaginal ring 1 Hormone patch 12 Hormone implant 12 long term contraception Rhythm 12 avoiding the most fertile time of month 2 weeks after last menstrual cycle Other 12 morning after None 38 includes people trying to get pregnant and borderline menopause women 1545 First seX 78 of females 39 85 of males Most recent seX 86 of females 93 of males Teen contracentive use Zygote divides to become blastocyst Implantation in the uterus could fail to implant before you even think you re preggers Some bleeding so she might think she got her period Begins to create amnion amniotic uid placenta umbilical cord Germinal neriod WEEKS 1 l0 2 Essentially all the part develop Week 3 neural tube develops Week 4 heart beats Embryonic neriod WEEKS 38 Weeks 912 Heartbeat audible with a stethoscope Weeks 1324 Mother feels movement responds to sounds Weeks 2538 Basically gaining weight lungs develop UNESCO UNICEF WHO Fact for Life Around the world Across the US Healthy pregnancy food iron iodine exercise Chromosomal abnormalitios Terato gens
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