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Anthropology Week 12

by: McKenna Johnson

Anthropology Week 12 Anth 140-01

McKenna Johnson
GPA 3.53

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About this Document

This covers H. erectus and H. ergaster. It also covers H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis
Human origins diversity
Matthew Tornow
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenna Johnson on Friday April 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 140-01 at St. Cloud State University taught by Matthew Tornow in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human origins diversity in anthropology, evolution, sphr at St. Cloud State University.

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Date Created: 04/15/16
Week Twelve Anthropology Homo Erectus Pelvis: I. From 1.2 mya in Ethiopia II. Characteristics: A. Large Pelvic Outlet 1. This refers to a large birth canal B. Large brained baby 1. About 50% (1/2) of adult size at birth a) Birth brain size is more in line with chimps than humans (1) Modern Humans are born with 1/4 - 1/3 adult size C. Sexual Dimorphism 1. Like that of Gorillas 2. The pelvis is very small D. Homo habilis Instead? 1. This theory has mostly been dismissed Acheulian Technology I. About 1.5 - 115,000 years ago A tool known as the hand axe A. II. Biface tool - a stone tool worked on 2 sides A. How to make biface tools: 1. New method (soft hammer technique) a) You begin with a hard hammer, but then use a soft hammer 2. Standard Shape a) this means there is a template 1 of 5 Week Twelve b) It also means they were teaching how to make these tools 3. Foresight/Prediction - changed temporal envelope a) means there is an understanding for cause and effects B. Could suggest knowledge of understanding of other things: 1. seasons 2. hunting C. Suggests more cognitive capacity than previous Homo’s III. Sites A. African Sites 1. Alduvai Gorge, Tanzania a) From 1.2 mya (1) Several Hand axes and large bones b) From 700-400 kya (1) H. ergaster remains with many artifacts 494 + tools (a) 2. Bouri, Ethiopia a) From 1.8 mya (1) H. erectus (2) Acheulian tools 3. Olorgesailie, Kenya a) From 900 - 400 kya (1) 2000 + Ibs of acheulian tools (2) Many animal remains B. European Sites 1. Spain a) Sima de los Hueso 2 of 5 Week Twelve (1) From 790 -780 kya b) Orce (1) From 1.4 mya (a) 100’s of artifacts found i) BUT not real acheulian tools 2. Czech Republic a) Prezletice (1) From over 400 kya (a) Stone tools 3. Italy a) Fontana Ranuccio (1) From 700 kya (a) Limestone tools i) Limestone is a crappy stone to make tools out of, but it means they were using whatever was available b) Castel de Guido (1) From 300 kya (a) Acheulian tools found (b) Hominid remains also found C. Asian Sites 1. *NOTE* there is a lack of acheulian tools in Asia 2. Zhoukoudian a) From 670 - 410 kya (1) remains of 40 individuals found 100,000 artifacts (2) (a) including choppers and awls 3 of 5 Week Twelve 3. Java a) From 1.6 - 1.0 mya (1) Very few tools found 4. Vietnam a) From 400 kya b) Found in: (1) Nui Do (2) Quan En c) Tools found - One theory, called the Movius Line, suggests there is a cultural reason for lack of tools. • Perhaps there was something different and/or better to use than rocks - Suggested that bamboo was used • Bamboo wouldn’t fossilize and so this explains the lack. - This Theory has fallen out of favor. H. erectus and Fire I. Locations A. Lake Baringo and Lake Turkana, Kenya 1. About 1.4 mya a) Very possible it was a natural fire B. Swarkrans, South Africa 1. About 1.3 - 1.0 mya a) Much Less likely to be natural (1) Burnt Bones were found C. Kao Poh Nam rock shelter, Thailand 4 o 5 Week Twelve 1. About 700 kya a) Good evidence of H. erectus using fire. (1) Tools scattered (2) Hearth II. Implications A. Offers Protection from predators B. Offers Warmth C. Confers Status 1. Gives power D. Used to capture prey 1. Animals fear fire E. Tool Manufacturing 1. Fire makes stone easier to manipulate F. Alteration of activity patterns G. Cooking 1. Makes food easier to chew a) Likely to have led smaller teeth 2. Easier to digest 3. Releases more calories a) Likely aided in the increase in brain size H. erectus and language I. Broca’s Area was perhaps developed enough for language A. More likely a range of sounds II. Nerve in jaw wasn’t as developed 5 o 5 Week Twelve A. Other nerves in body weren’t either III. They probably communicated symbolically H. erectus and H. ergaster I. Locations A. Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 1. About 1.2 mya a) Found bones split for marrow (1) Suggests scavenging B. Olrgesailie, Kenya 1. About 700-400 kya a) Found large mammal bones processed (1) split and cut marks (2) suggests hunting and scavenging C. Zhoukoudian, China (Dragon Bone Hill) 1. About 670-410 kya a) Found large accumulations of animals bones b) Found H. erectus skulls and other bones c) Found tools II. Footprints A. Found in Ileret, Kenya 1. first only 2 dozen prints found 2. then 100 + footprints a) Many individuals (1) Adult Males (a) size ten foot 6 of 5 Week Twelve (b) arch in foot b) Walking along lakeshore B. Hunting 1. This scene mirrors what present day predators are doing a) Carnivores walk parallel with lakeshore while others walk perpendicular Summary Of Homo ergaster: I. Found first in Africa A. around 1.8 mya II. Fully adapted to savanna life III. Migrates North A. Java 1. There around 1.6 mya B. Dmanisi, Georgia 1. There around 1.7 mya IV. Uses Acheulian tools V. Possibly used fire VI. Possibly hunted VII.Possibly scavenger VIII.Entered new habitats Hominins of the Middle and Upper Pleistocene (180ky - 125 kya - 10 ky) I. Includes three Homo species A. Homo heidelbergensis B. Homo neanderthalensis 7 of 5 Week Twelve C. Homo sapiens Environment in the Mid to Late Pleistocene: I. It was the time of the ice age(s) A. Glacial Interludes were characterized by: 1. Cold 2. Ice and snow accumulations B. Glaciers were mostly in the northern latitudes 1. The south was dry and arid a) caused an increase in desert C. Effects cause by Glaciation 1. There were changes in: a) Climate b) Flora c) Fauna d) Migration *NOTE* 1. There were pockets, or refuges, from the glaciers 2. They did not live on the glaciers, but in these refuges 3. Because glaciers and the desert created a barrier between populations during certain interludes and to gene flow the genetic mutations stayed within a population A. BUT when the the interlude is such that the glaciers and desert retreat some gene flow is able to continue 8 o 5 Week Twelve Mid Pleistocene: I. Homo heidelbergensis: A. Known as archaic Homo sapien 1. The endocast looks much like modern Homo sapien a) Modern EQ and Brain size B. Shares characteristics of both Homo erectus and Homo Sapien 1. With Homo erectus: a) Large face b) Large, projecting brow ridge c) low forehead d) thick bones in cranium 2. With Homo sapien: a) Increased brain size b) More globular cranium meaning it is wider at the top more so than the bottom (1) c) More vertical nose d) less occipital angulation (1) refers to shape of the rear of skull C. Sites 1. Africa: a) Bodo, Ethiopia (1) Around 600 kya b) Kabwe, Zambia (1) Around 130 kya 2. Europe: a) Arago, France 9 of 5 Week Twelve (1) Around 400 -300 kya b) Atapuerca, Spain (1) Around 300 kya c) Steinheim, Germany (1) Around 300 - 250 kya d) Swanscombe, England (1) Around 300 - 250 kya 3. Asia: a) Dali, China (1) Around 230 - 180 kya (2) The find doesn’t fit well into erectus, sapien, or neanderthalensis, SO it gets thrown into heidelbergensis (a) BUT could be own species b) Jinniushan, China (1) Around 200 kya D. Technology 1. To start with used Acheulian tools a) With more variety 2. Later used levallois technique a) Shifted the way the stone was used (1) The core was no longer used as a tool. E. Homo heidelbergensis and glaciation 1. Fire Use: a) There are fossil hearths in France and China not good fossil evidence for heidelbergensis using fire though (1) 2. Shelter: 10 o 5 Week Twelve a) Increased use of caves (1) First Homo to take advantage of caves (a) Found fossils b) Skins and framework (1) Possibly used these to makes bluffs better shelters 3. Food: a) There was more variety in food resources. (1) Some used included: (a) Fruits and vegetables (b) Seeds (c) bird eggs (d) shellfish (e) fresh water fish Hunting 4. a) In Jersey Cave, France: (1) Processed animal bones have been found (a) these bones are of young animals b) Schoningen, Germany (1) Around 400 - 380 kya (a) Spears i) Unknown use given their odd design 11 of 5 Week Twelve Upper Pleistocene I. Homo neanderthalensis A. Lived around 130 - 40 kya B. First Specimen found in 1856 C. Skull Morphology 1. HUGE brain a) About 1520 cc (1) Larger than modern human (1300 - 1400) 2. Low forehead a) higher than H. erectus 3. Occipital bun a) back of skull has rounded bun shaped bump 4. Curved brow ridge 5. Projecting mid face the nose sticks out quick a bit a) 6. No chin D. Skeletal Morphology (compared to H. sapien) 1. Most likely adaptions for cold weather: a) Very robust (1) broad and thick bones b) barrel shaped chest (1) flairs out at the bottom c) heavy muscle marks d) shorter limbs E. Locations 1. Many populations from France (and Europe) to Asia 12 of 5 Week Twelve a) La chapelle - aux - saints, Fance (1) Burials (a) Flex burial i) earliest evidence or burial (2) Animals bones and tools also found b) Maula - Guerey Cave, France (1) About 120 - 100 kya (2) processed bones (a) meaning bones with markings that could be from a tool (3) cannibalism (a) Unsure if done for survival or ritual c) St. Cesaire, France (1) About 35 kya (2) Lived at same time as homo sapiens possibly. one of the last neanderthal sites (3) d) Krapina, Croata (1) about 130 kya (a) very early (2) First DNA exctacted from bone at this site (3) Cannibalism e) Tabun, Israel (1) Looked more modern (2) early contemporary of H. sapien f) Shanidar, Iraq (1) ‘old man’ (a) 30 -45 years old 13 of 5 Week Twelve (2) Several injuries (a) suggests care giving F. Technology 1. Mousterian tool industry 2. The core a) makes many tools with many functions (1) digging (2) hunting G. Settlements 1. open sites? a) one possible site in Ukraine (1) right of mammoth bone with tools and hearths (a) no neanderthal remains i) could be H. sapien caves 2. a) Definite yes (1) neanderthals are “Thee” cavemen 3. rock shelters a) This ties into cave. H. Subsistance 1. Were likely very successful close range hunters 2. Were gatherers a) gathered: (1) berries (2) nuts (3) vegetables 14 of 5 Week Twelve 15 of 5


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