New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 2010- Chapter 13 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 13 Notes Psyc 2010-003

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2010-003 > PSYC 2010 Chapter 13 Notes
Morgan Dimery

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the material from the stress section (it says chapter 14, but that's wrong) on the knowledge checklist. This stuff will be on our final!
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

Similar to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson


Reviews for PSYC 2010- Chapter 13 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/16/16
Chapter  13   Stress,  Coping,  &  Health     The  biopsychosocial  model  says  that  physical  illness  is  caused  by  a  complex   interaction  of  biological,  psychological,  and  sociocultural  values.  The  neurological   basis  of  stress  concerns  the  autonomic  nervous  system.  This  system  regulates  our   internal  condition.  The  flaw  with  this  system  is  that  we  can’t  ever  take  control  over   it.  This  is  why  we  have  a  problem  controlling  stress.  The  autonomic  nervous  system   is  divided  into  two  parts,  the  parasympathetic  and  the  sympathetic.  The   parasympathetic  controls  out  bodily  functions  when  we  are  calm  are  relaxed.  The   sympathetic  controls  our  bodily  functions  when  we  are  under  stress  (fight  or  flight).      Stress  is  any  circumstance  that  threatens  or  is  perceived  as  a  threat  to  one’s  well-­‐ being  and  tax  one’s  coping  abilities.  Stress  is  cumulative,  so  minor  stresses   eventually  build  up  and  cause  major  stress.  The  experience  of  feeling  stressed   depends  on  what  events  someone  notices  and  how  they  appraise  them.  Certain   events  that  are  stressful  for  one  person  may  not  be  stressful  for  another.  Primary   appraisal  is  assessing  whether  an  event  is  either  irrelevant  to  you,  relevant  but  not   stressful,  or  stressful.  If  the  event  is  viewed  as  stressful,  then  a  secondary   appraisal  will  most  likely  be  done.  This  is  deciding  what  the  coping  resources  are   and  options  for  dealing  with  the  stress.  The  major  types  of  stress  are  as  follows:   • Frustration-­‐  this  is  experienced  whenever  the  pursuit  of  a  goal  is  hindered.   Some  examples  could  be  a  traffic  jam  or  your  computer  breaking.   • Conflict-­‐  this  is  when  two  or  more  incompatible  motivations  or  behavioral   impulses  compete  for  expression.     o Approach-­‐approach-­‐  a  choice  must  be  made  between  two  attractive   options   o Avoidance-­‐avoidance-­‐  a  choice  must  be  made  between  two   unattractive  options   o Approach-­‐avoidance-­‐  a  choice  must  be  made  about  whether  to  pursue   a  goal  that  has  attractive  and  unattractive  aspects   • Change-­‐  this  is  any  substantial  alteration  in  one’s  living  circumstances  that   require  readjustment.  It  could  also  include  catastrophic  events  and  hassles.   Holmes  and  Rahe  came  up  with  the  Social  Readjustment  Rating  Scale  (SRRS).   This  is  scale  that  uses  numbers  to  rate  the  magnitude  of  40  major  life  events.   The  numbers  tell  how  much  readjustment  is  required  for  each  change.     • Pressure-­‐  this  involves  the  expectations  or  demands  that  one  must  behave   in  a  certain  way.  This  includes  the  pressure  to  perform  in  a  certain  way  or   level  set  by  one’s  self  or  others,  and  the  pressure  to  conform  to  certain   standards.  Pressure  can  often  be  self-­‐imposed  stress.   Stress  definitely  causes  emotional  arousal,  but  this  is  not  always  a  negative  thing.   The  inverted-­‐U  hypothesis  says  that  up  to  a  certain  point,  emotional  arousal   increases  one’s  performance.  Once  it  crosses  a  certain  point  it  becomes  destructive   to  the  performance.  The  level  of  arousal  at  which  performance  peaks  is  known  as   the  optimal  level  of  arousal.  As  the  task  becomes  more  complex,  the  optimal  level  of   arousal  tends  to  decrease.       There  are  also  physiological  responses  to  stress.  The  hypothalamus  initially  senses   the  stress.  The  hypothalamus  sends  signals  to  both  the  autonomic  nervous  system   and  the  pituitary  gland.  The  autonomic  nervous  system  stimulates  the  adrenal   glands  and  release  catecholamines  into  the  bloodstream.  These  increase   cardiovascular  response,  respiration,  perspiration,  blood  flow  to  active  muscles,   muscle  strength,  and  mental  activity.  The  pituitary  gland  secretes  a  hormone  called   adrenocorticotropic  (ACTH)  that  stimulates  the  adrenal  cortex  to  release   corticosteroids.  These  increase  protein  and  fat  mobilization  and  access  to  energy   storage.  They  also  decrease  inflammation.       Hans  Selye  developed  the  General  Adaptation  Syndrome  (GAS).  It  is  the  model  of   the  body’s  response  to  stress.     • Alarm-­‐  this  occurs  when  the  organism  first  senses  the  stress.  First  the   organism  will  experience  shock,  a  time  where  they  are  frozen  and  don’t   response  to  the  stress.  Then  the  organism  will  experience  counter-­‐shock,   which  is  when  the  response  to  the  stress  occurs.   • Resistance-­‐  if  the  stress  is  prolonged,  the  organism  will  go  to  this  stage.  This   is  a  stage  in  which  the  physiological  changes  begin  to  stabilize  as  the  coping   methods  begin.     • Exhaustion-­‐  if  the  stress  continues  for  an  extreme  amount  of  time  then  the   organism  will  continue  into  this  stage.  If  the  stress  is  not  overcome,  then  the   body  might  be  depleted.       There  are  different  behavioral  responses  to  stress,  and  most  of  them  involve  coping.   This  is  the  effort  to  master,  reduce,  or  tolerate  the  demands  created  by  stress.   Coping  can  be  a  good  thing,  but  it  can  also  be  a  bad  thing.   • Giving  up  and  blaming  oneself-­‐  when  some  people  experience  stress  they   will  just  give  up  and  withdraw  themselves  from  the  problem.  This  is  known   as  learned  helplessness.  It  is  a  passive  behavior  produced  by  exposure  to   unavoidable  aversive  events.  This  seems  to  happen  when  individuals  feel  like   a  situation  is  beyond  their  control.  Albert  Ellis  said  that  catastrophic  thinking   is  when  an  individual  becomes  highly  self-­‐critical  during  times  of  stress.  It   can  be  very  unhealthy.     • Striking  out  at  others-­‐  people  sometimes  respond  to  others  in  aggressive   ways  when  they  are  under  stress.  The  frustration-­‐aggression  hypothesis   states  that  aggression  is  always  caused  by  frustration.  Sigmund  Freud   referred  to  releasing  one’s  emotional  tension  as  catharsis.  It  has  been  found   that  usually  behaving  in  an  aggressive  manner  only  fuels  more  aggression.     • Indulging  oneself-­‐  this  consists  of  engaging  in  unwise  patterns  regarding   eating,  drinking,  spending  money,  etc.     • Defensive  coping-­‐  defense  mechanisms  are  unconscious  reactions  that   protect  a  person  from  unpleasant  emotions.  A  few  of  these  were  talked  about   further  in  Chapter  11.  This  is  not  a  beneficial  way  of  dealing  with  stress.     • Constructive  coping-­‐  these  are  healthy  efforts  that  people  make  in  order  to   deal  with  stressful  situations.  They  involve  confronting  the  problem  directly,   realistically  appraising  your  level  of  stress  and  coping  resources,  and  making   sure  that  one’s  body  is  not  vulnerable  to  potentially  damaging  effects  of   stress.       Psychosomatic  diseases  are  diseases  that  affect  both  the  mind  and  the  body.  They   can  be  any  diseases  are  brought  about  by  stress.  Some  examples  include  high  blood   pressure,  heart  disease,  and  stomach  ulcers.  There  has  been  an  association  with   coronary  risk  and  a  type  A  personality.  This  type  of  personality  includes  a  strong   competitive  orientation,  impatience  and  time  urgency,  and  anger  and  hostility.  The   opposite  of  this  is  individuals  with  a  type  B  personality.  These  individuals  are   relaxed,  patient,  and  easygoing.  The  main  component  of  a  type  A  personality  that  is   associated  with  heart  disease  is  anger  and  hostility.  There  have  been  studies  done   that  show  an  association  between  stress  and  heart  disease,  and  also  depression  and   heart  disease.  There  have  also  been  correlations  between  stress  and  AIDS,  asthma,   cancer,  chronic  back  pain,  common  colds,  complications  with  pregnancy,  diabetes,   epileptic  seizures,  fibromyalgia,  herpes  virus,  hypertension,  inflammatory  bowel   disease,  migraines,  multiple  sclerosis,  periodontal  disease,  premenstrual  distress,   rheumatoid  arthritis,  skin  disorders,  strokes,  and  ulcers.       There  are  some  things  that  can  improve  stress.     • Social  support-­‐  this  refers  to  various  types  of  aid  and  emotional  sustenance   provided  by  member’s  of  one’s  social  networks.  There  have  been  high   correlations  found  between  high  social  support  and  greater  immune   functioning.     • Optimism  and  conscientiousness-­‐  there  have  been  correlations  found   between  high  optimism  and  good  physical  health.  These  individuals  seem  to   cope  with  stress  in  more  adaptive  ways  than  individuals  who  have  a  negative   mindset.  Also,  people  who  are  more  conscientious  tend  to  be  healthier  than   those  who  are  not.  This  is  most  likely  because  these  individuals  are  less  likely   to  partake  in  activities  that  are  harmful.       Personal  Application-­‐  Improving  Coping  and  Stress  Management     • Humor  can  be  used  as  a  stress  reducer.   • Releasing  your  pent  up  emotions  and  forgiving  others  can  also  lead  to   reduced  stress.   • Relaxation  is  a  value  stress-­‐management  technique.    


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.