PSYC 2010- Chapter 13 Notes
PSYC 2010- Chapter 13 Notes Psyc 2010-003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Chapter 13 Stress, Coping, & Health The biopsychosocial model says that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural values. The neurological basis of stress concerns the autonomic nervous system. This system regulates our internal condition. The flaw with this system is that we can’t ever take control over it. This is why we have a problem controlling stress. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts, the parasympathetic and the sympathetic. The parasympathetic controls out bodily functions when we are calm are relaxed. The sympathetic controls our bodily functions when we are under stress (fight or flight). Stress is any circumstance that threatens or is perceived as a threat to one’s well-‐ being and tax one’s coping abilities. Stress is cumulative, so minor stresses eventually build up and cause major stress. The experience of feeling stressed depends on what events someone notices and how they appraise them. Certain events that are stressful for one person may not be stressful for another. Primary appraisal is assessing whether an event is either irrelevant to you, relevant but not stressful, or stressful. If the event is viewed as stressful, then a secondary appraisal will most likely be done. This is deciding what the coping resources are and options for dealing with the stress. The major types of stress are as follows: • Frustration-‐ this is experienced whenever the pursuit of a goal is hindered. Some examples could be a traffic jam or your computer breaking. • Conflict-‐ this is when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression. o Approach-‐approach-‐ a choice must be made between two attractive options o Avoidance-‐avoidance-‐ a choice must be made between two unattractive options o Approach-‐avoidance-‐ a choice must be made about whether to pursue a goal that has attractive and unattractive aspects • Change-‐ this is any substantial alteration in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment. It could also include catastrophic events and hassles. Holmes and Rahe came up with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). This is scale that uses numbers to rate the magnitude of 40 major life events. The numbers tell how much readjustment is required for each change. • Pressure-‐ this involves the expectations or demands that one must behave in a certain way. This includes the pressure to perform in a certain way or level set by one’s self or others, and the pressure to conform to certain standards. Pressure can often be self-‐imposed stress. Stress definitely causes emotional arousal, but this is not always a negative thing. The inverted-‐U hypothesis says that up to a certain point, emotional arousal increases one’s performance. Once it crosses a certain point it becomes destructive to the performance. The level of arousal at which performance peaks is known as the optimal level of arousal. As the task becomes more complex, the optimal level of arousal tends to decrease. There are also physiological responses to stress. The hypothalamus initially senses the stress. The hypothalamus sends signals to both the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland. The autonomic nervous system stimulates the adrenal glands and release catecholamines into the bloodstream. These increase cardiovascular response, respiration, perspiration, blood flow to active muscles, muscle strength, and mental activity. The pituitary gland secretes a hormone called adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) that stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. These increase protein and fat mobilization and access to energy storage. They also decrease inflammation. Hans Selye developed the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). It is the model of the body’s response to stress. • Alarm-‐ this occurs when the organism first senses the stress. First the organism will experience shock, a time where they are frozen and don’t response to the stress. Then the organism will experience counter-‐shock, which is when the response to the stress occurs. • Resistance-‐ if the stress is prolonged, the organism will go to this stage. This is a stage in which the physiological changes begin to stabilize as the coping methods begin. • Exhaustion-‐ if the stress continues for an extreme amount of time then the organism will continue into this stage. If the stress is not overcome, then the body might be depleted. There are different behavioral responses to stress, and most of them involve coping. This is the effort to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress. Coping can be a good thing, but it can also be a bad thing. • Giving up and blaming oneself-‐ when some people experience stress they will just give up and withdraw themselves from the problem. This is known as learned helplessness. It is a passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events. This seems to happen when individuals feel like a situation is beyond their control. Albert Ellis said that catastrophic thinking is when an individual becomes highly self-‐critical during times of stress. It can be very unhealthy. • Striking out at others-‐ people sometimes respond to others in aggressive ways when they are under stress. The frustration-‐aggression hypothesis states that aggression is always caused by frustration. Sigmund Freud referred to releasing one’s emotional tension as catharsis. It has been found that usually behaving in an aggressive manner only fuels more aggression. • Indulging oneself-‐ this consists of engaging in unwise patterns regarding eating, drinking, spending money, etc. • Defensive coping-‐ defense mechanisms are unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions. A few of these were talked about further in Chapter 11. This is not a beneficial way of dealing with stress. • Constructive coping-‐ these are healthy efforts that people make in order to deal with stressful situations. They involve confronting the problem directly, realistically appraising your level of stress and coping resources, and making sure that one’s body is not vulnerable to potentially damaging effects of stress. Psychosomatic diseases are diseases that affect both the mind and the body. They can be any diseases are brought about by stress. Some examples include high blood pressure, heart disease, and stomach ulcers. There has been an association with coronary risk and a type A personality. This type of personality includes a strong competitive orientation, impatience and time urgency, and anger and hostility. The opposite of this is individuals with a type B personality. These individuals are relaxed, patient, and easygoing. The main component of a type A personality that is associated with heart disease is anger and hostility. There have been studies done that show an association between stress and heart disease, and also depression and heart disease. There have also been correlations between stress and AIDS, asthma, cancer, chronic back pain, common colds, complications with pregnancy, diabetes, epileptic seizures, fibromyalgia, herpes virus, hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, multiple sclerosis, periodontal disease, premenstrual distress, rheumatoid arthritis, skin disorders, strokes, and ulcers. There are some things that can improve stress. • Social support-‐ this refers to various types of aid and emotional sustenance provided by member’s of one’s social networks. There have been high correlations found between high social support and greater immune functioning. • Optimism and conscientiousness-‐ there have been correlations found between high optimism and good physical health. These individuals seem to cope with stress in more adaptive ways than individuals who have a negative mindset. Also, people who are more conscientious tend to be healthier than those who are not. This is most likely because these individuals are less likely to partake in activities that are harmful. Personal Application-‐ Improving Coping and Stress Management • Humor can be used as a stress reducer. • Releasing your pent up emotions and forgiving others can also lead to reduced stress. • Relaxation is a value stress-‐management technique.
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