PAM 2030, Week 11 Notes
PAM 2030, Week 11 Notes PAM 2030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 April 12, 2016 iclicker: great migration definition (south to north migration of blacks) Family o Sayer: children are getting negatively affected by the economic change look at change in time spent with children we looked at women, noted that increased education has made parenting easier o education also contributes to diverging childhoods men spend more time too behavioral changes account for more change than compositional shifts ex. working employ has less effect than a change in mentality trends: homeschooling has the potential to increase children: get more time with parents families: both parents report increased stress cultural shift: time with children is valued more Migration o one of the three components of demography o population change and urbanization o linked with social stratification and upward mobility o affects US electoral map and representation o different from ivtal events socioeconomic process, not biological restrictions on occurrence repeatable event within the individual migration is inherently spatial migration is reversible o geographic mobility migration as a permanent change in residence migration between labor markets residential mobility; local changes o types: special conception internal migration: moving within a country international migration o in/out migration duration concerns is the move relatively permanent is it temporary how far a distance appropriate unit of analysis individuals vs. households o census: migration is defined as moves across jurisdictional boundaries o UN: at least 1 year in a new location in order to be considered migrant o immigration vs. emigration long term immigrants (>1 year) international migrants legal immigrants (official documentation, visa) undocumented immigrants (without official visa) o foreign born, non citizens o without valid documentation or overstayed valid visas refugees: fear persecution, file for status in origin country to emigrate asylees: already in the country during admission application visitors o migration: mid level theories early attempts of theory 1880s, Ravenstein, geographer o inductive approach to developing rules for migration migration and distance: most migrate relatively short distances migration by stages: most migration happens in waves streams and counterstreams: movement can occur in either direction location: urban dwellers as less migratory than rural females dominate among short term journeys development increases migration economics motives rather than political ones dominate as a reason for moving o pros and cons modernization and urbanization and women are considered (negative) aggregate models no individual or family models no characteristic/cultural/duration analysis 1970s, Lee o origin, destination, intervening obstacles, push and pull factors more recents: consider more family o theories non classical economics approach macro vs. micro supply and demand/cost and benefit new economics of migration collective group decision making segmented labor market world systems core vs. periphery social capital cumulative causation April 14, 2016 iclicker: urban areas had higher death rates and thus needed migration and urbanization Measuring Migration o difficulties: no available count of in or out migration, no universally agree upon measure o megraphic balancing equation o net migration: requires 10 years of birth and death data uses 11 years and mid year populations (P2010P2000-(20002010 2002010net migration can be negative o natural increase : NI = B-D o 10 year net migration ratio o proportion of population growth estimating migration : surveys, where people move and live o results show most moves are short distance o mover rate has been declining dual career couples, aging population the migrants: young adults (and their children) move the most o women and men have same rates (gender equality) international migration o opportunity structures in place of origin vs. destination step migration (rural to town to city to another country) chain migration (a pioneer followed by others Massey’s Perverse Laws of International Migration o it’s easier to start than stop o restrictive actions often have the opposite effect decreases circular migration fundamental causes may be outside policy’s control immigrants understand immigration better than politicians and academics thus are often able to circumvent policies aimed at stopping them US, Canada, etc o US: has 20% of the worlds’ migrants mostly from Asia and Latin America favors family reunification o Canada: mostly from Asia favors employment and educational potential o Europe: more diversity Urbanization o urban transition: rural/agricultural to urban majority of US reside in cities (characteristics of richer countries) range: 0% to 100% in urban areas 1800: 3% o urban, a function of: population size land area (space) ratio of population to space economic and social organization o proximate determinates of urbanization internal rural to urban migration natural increase international urban migration reclassification (rural to urban) combination of all of the above o urban negatives: crowded, strangers, prone to slums o suburbanization urban sprawl development of edge cities, satellite cities edge city o 5+ million sq. ft. of leasable office space o 600,000+ sq. ft. of leasable retail space o number of jobs > number of bedrooms o perceived as a single place o recently developed/created smart cities: gentrification and new urbanism urban vs. rural: a continuum, not a dichotomy